As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 17, 2024
Registration Nos. 333-          
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549
FORM S-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
ESSENTIAL PROPERTIES REALTY TRUST, INC.
ESSENTIAL PROPERTIES, L.P.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Maryland (Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc.)
Delaware (Essential Properties, L.P.)
82-4005693 (Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc.)
83-3628345 (Essential Properties, L.P.)
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
902 Carnegie Center Boulevard, Suite 520
Princeton, New Jersey 08540
(609) 436-0619
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrants’ principal executive offices)
Peter M. Mavoides
President and Chief Executive Officer
902 Carnegie Center Boulevard, Suite 520
Princeton, New Jersey 08540
(609) 436-0619
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
With copies to:
Bartholomew A. Sheehan, Esq.
Jason A. Friedhoff, Esq.
Sidley Austin LLP
787 Seventh Avenue
New York, New York 10019
(212) 839-5300
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time on or after the effective date of this registration statement.
If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box: ☐
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box: ☐
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☒
If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
Essential Properties, L.P.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act.
Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc. ☐
Essential Properties, L.P. ☐



PROSPECTUS
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Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc.
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Debt Securities
Depositary Shares
Warrants
Rights
Units
Guarantees of Debt Securities
Essential Properties, L.P.
Debt Securities
Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc. may, from time to time, offer and sell, in one or more offerings, shares of its common stock, $0.01 par value per share, shares of its preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share, debt securities, depositary shares, warrants, rights and units. Essential Properties, L.P. may, from time to time, offer and sell debt securities, and, unless otherwise described in the applicable prospectus supplement, Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc. may guarantee the principal of, and premium (if any) and interest on, any such debt securities.
This prospectus describes some of the general terms that may apply to these securities. We will provide the specific prices and terms of these securities in one or more supplements to this prospectus at the time of any offering. You should read this prospectus and any applicable accompanying prospectus supplement, including the documents incorporated by reference, carefully before you make your investment decision.
We may offer and sell these securities through underwriters, dealers or agents or directly to purchasers, on a continuous or delayed basis. The prospectus supplement for each offering will describe in detail the plan of distribution for that offering and will set forth the names of any underwriters, dealers or agents involved in the offering and any applicable fees, commissions or discount arrangements.
This prospectus may not be used to sell securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such offered securities.
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”), under the symbol “EPRT.” On June 14, 2024, the last reported sales price of our common stock on the NYSE was $27.60 per share. Each prospectus supplement will indicate if the securities offered thereby will be listed on any securities exchange.
Investing in these securities involves risk. You should carefully read and consider the risk factors included in the periodic reports and other information that we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission that are incorporated by reference in this prospectus and the prospectus supplement relating to a specific offering of securities. See “Risk Factors” on page 7 of this prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is June 17, 2024



TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
We have not authorized any person to give any information or to make any representations in connection with this prospectus other than those contained or incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, and, if given or made, such information or representations must not be relied upon as having been so authorized. This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities to which they relate, and this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction where, or to any person to whom, it is unlawful to make such an offer or solicitation. You should not assume that the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement is correct as of any date other than the date of the document in which it is contained or such other dates as may be specified in such document, even though this prospectus and such prospectus supplement are delivered or securities are sold pursuant to the prospectus and such prospectus supplement at a later date. Since the respective dates of such documents, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed. We can use this prospectus to sell the securities only if it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.



ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a “shelf” registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) as a “well-known seasoned issuer” under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). Under the shelf registration process, we may, from time to time, sell the securities described in this prospectus and an accompanying prospectus supplement in one or more offerings.
This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities that may be offered by us. Each time we sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement containing specific information about the terms of the securities being offered and the specific manner in which they will be offered. The prospectus supplement and any other offering materials may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus, on the one hand, and the information contained in any prospectus supplement, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.
This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not contain all of the information included in the registration statement. We have omitted parts of the registration statement in accordance with the rules and regulations of the SEC. For further information, we refer you to the registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the SEC, of which this prospectus is a part, including its exhibits, and the documents incorporated by reference therein.
You should read this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with any additional information and any other offering materials (including any free writing prospectus) prepared by us or on our behalf, and you should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in such documents. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. You should also read and carefully consider the information in the documents we have referred you to under “Where You Can Find More Information” below. Information incorporated by reference after the date of this prospectus or any related prospectus supplement may add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or such prospectus supplement. Any information in such subsequent filings that is inconsistent with this prospectus or any such prospectus supplement will supersede the information in this prospectus or such prospectus supplement.
We may offer the securities directly, through agents, or to or through underwriters or dealers. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of the plan of distribution and set forth the names of any underwriters involved in the sale of the securities. See “Plan of Distribution” below for more information. No securities may be sold without delivery of a prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of those securities.
Unless the context otherwise requires, the words “we,” “our,” “us” and “our company” refer to Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc., a Maryland corporation, together with its consolidated subsidiaries, including its operating partnership, and “operating partnership” refers to Essential Properties, L.P., a Delaware limited partnership, through which we hold substantially all of our assets and conduct our operations.
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INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
The SEC’s rules allow us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. This means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be a part of this prospectus, and information filed separately with the SEC on or after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of a particular offering referred to in a prospectus supplement will automatically be deemed to update and supersede this information. The following documents previously filed with the SEC are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, except for any documents or portions thereof deemed to be “furnished” and not filed in accordance with SEC rules:
our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, filed with the SEC on February 14, 2024;
our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A filed with the SEC on April 2, 2024
our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2024, filed with the SEC on April 24, 2024;
our Current Reports on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on March  7, 2024, March 14, 2024, May 14, 2024 and June 3, 2024; and
the description of our common stock contained in the Registration Statement on Form 8-A, dated and filed with the SEC on June 15, 2018, as updated by Exhibit 4.2 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, and as subsequently amended or updated.
All documents that we file (but not those that we furnish) pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), on or after the date of this prospectus but prior to the termination of the applicable offering covered by this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any previously filed documents. References in this prospectus to documents incorporated by reference shall also include documents deemed to be incorporated by reference.
Information that is “furnished” to the SEC shall not be deemed incorporated by reference into this prospectus or the registration statement of which this prospectus is part.
Any statement made in a document incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus, or in any other subsequently filed document that is incorporated by reference into this prospectus, modifies or supersedes that statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.
You can obtain any of the filings incorporated by reference into this prospectus through us or from the SEC through the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Upon request, we will provide, without charge, a copy of any or all of the reports and documents referred to above which have been incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should direct requests for these documents to: Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc., 902 Carnegie Center Boulevard, Suite 520, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, Attention: Secretary (telephone (609) 436-0619).
Our reports and documents incorporated by reference herein may also be found in the “Investor Relations” section of our website at www.essentialproperties.com. The content of our website and any information that is linked to or accessible from our website (other than our filings with the SEC that are incorporated by reference, as set forth under “Information Incorporated By Reference”) is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus or the registration statement of which it forms a part, and you should not consider it a part of this prospectus or the registration statement.
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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with respect to the securities offered by this prospectus. This prospectus, which forms a part of the registration statement, and any prospectus supplement, do not contain all of the information in the registration statement and the exhibits to such registration statement. For further information with respect to us and our securities, we refer you to the registration statement and to the exhibits to such registration statement. Statements contained in this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement as to the contents of any contract or other document referred to in, or incorporated by reference in, this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement are not necessarily complete and, where that contract is an exhibit to the registration statement, each statement is qualified in all respects by the exhibit to which the reference relates.
We are subject to the information and periodic reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, and we file annual, quarterly and current reports and other information with the SEC. These periodic reports and other information are available through the SEC’s web site at www.sec.gov. They are also available through our web site at www.essentialproperties.com. The content of our website and any information that is linked to or accessible from our website (other than our filings with the SEC that are incorporated by reference, as set forth under “Information Incorporated By Reference”) is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus or the registration statement of which it forms a part, and you should not consider it a part of this prospectus or the registration statement.
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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus contains or incorporates by reference forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. In particular, many statements pertaining to our business and growth strategies, investment, financing and leasing activities and trends in our business, including trends in the market for long-term, net leases of freestanding, single-tenant properties, contain forward-looking statements. When used in this prospectus or the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, the words “estimate,” “anticipate,” “expect,” “believe,” “intend,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “seek,” “approximately,” and “plan,” and variations of such words, and similar words or phrases, that are predictions of future events or trends and that do not relate solely to historical matters, are intended to identify forward-looking statements. You can also identify forward-looking statements by discussions of strategy, plans, beliefs or intentions of management.
Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from the results of operations or plans expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements; accordingly, you should not rely on forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Forward-looking statements depend on assumptions, data or methods that may be incorrect or imprecise, and may not be realized. We do not guarantee that the transactions and events described will happen as described (or that they will happen at all). The following factors, among others, could cause actual results and future events to differ materially from those set forth or contemplated in the forward-looking statements:
general business and economic conditions;
risks inherent in the real estate business, including tenant defaults or bankruptcies, illiquidity of real estate investments, fluctuations in real estate values and the general economic climate in local markets, competition for tenants in such markets, potential liability relating to environmental matters and potential damages from natural disasters;
the performance and financial condition of our tenants;
the availability of suitable properties to invest in and our ability to acquire and lease those properties on favorable terms;
our ability to renew leases, lease vacant space or re-lease space as existing leases expire or are terminated;
volatility and uncertainty in the credit markets and broader financial markets, including potential fluctuations in the Consumer Price Index;
the degree and nature of our competition;
our failure to generate sufficient cash flows to service our outstanding indebtedness;
our ability to access debt and equity capital on attractive terms;
fluctuating interest rates;
availability of qualified personnel and our ability to retain our key management personnel;
changes in, or the failure or inability to comply with, applicable law or regulation;
our failure to continue to qualify for taxation as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”);
changes in the U.S. tax law and other U.S. laws, whether or not specific to REITs;
any adverse impact of the COVID-19 or other pandemic on us or our tenants; and
additional factors, including, but not limited to, those referred to under the caption “Risk Factors” in this prospectus and in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, including in “Part I—Item 1A. Risk
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Factors,” as well as other risk factors identified in our other reports filed from time to time with the SEC and incorporated by reference herein and in any prospectus supplement.
You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of the document in which they are contained. While forward-looking statements reflect our good faith beliefs, they are not guarantees of future events or of our performance. We disclaim any obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement to reflect changes in underlying assumptions or factors, new information, data or methods, future events or other changes, except as required by law.
Because we operate in a highly competitive and rapidly changing environment, new risks emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for management to predict all such risks, nor can management assess the impact of all such risks on our business or the extent to which any risk, or combination of risks, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. Given these risks and uncertainties, investors should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements as a prediction of actual events or results.
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ESSENTIAL PROPERTIES REALTY TRUST, INC.
We are an internally managed real estate company that acquires, owns and manages primarily single-tenant properties that are net leased on a long-term basis to middle-market companies operating service-oriented or experience-based businesses. We generally invest in and lease freestanding, single-tenant commercial real estate facilities where a tenant services its customers and conducts activities that are essential to the generation of the tenant’s sales and profits.
Substantially all of our assets are held by, and substantially all of our operations are conducted through, our operating partnership, either directly or through subsidiaries. Essential Properties OP G.P., LLC, one of our wholly-owned subsidiaries, is the sole general partner of our operating partnership. As of March 31, 2024, we held a 99.7% limited partner interest in our operating partnership.
We were incorporated under the laws of Maryland on January 12, 2018. Our principal executive offices are located at 902 Carnegie Center Blvd., Suite 520, Princeton, New Jersey 08540. Our main telephone number is (609) 436-0619. Our website is http://www.essentialproperties.com. The content of our website and any information that is linked to or accessible from our website (other than our filings with the SEC that are incorporated by reference, as set forth under “Information Incorporated By Reference”) is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus or the registration statement of which it forms a part, and you should not consider it a part of this prospectus or the registration statement. The foregoing information about us is only a general summary and is not intended to be comprehensive. For additional information about us, you should refer to the information under “Information Incorporated by Reference” and “Where You Can Find More Information” in this prospectus.
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RISK FACTORS
Investment in the offered securities involves risks. Before acquiring any offered securities pursuant to this prospectus, you should carefully consider the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectus that we may prepare in connection with the offered securities, including, without limitation, the risks of an investment in our company under the captions “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” (or similar captions) in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K, and all other information contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus, as updated in our subsequent filings with the SEC under Exchange Act. The occurrence of any of these risks could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, funds from operations and prospects and might cause you to lose all or a part of your investment in the offered securities.
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GUARANTOR DISCLOSURES
Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc. may guarantee debt securities of the operating partnership as described in “Description of Debt Securities” in this prospectus and as further described in an applicable prospectus supplement. Any such guarantees by Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc. will be full, irrevocable, unconditional and absolute joint and several guarantees to the holders of each series of such guaranteed debt securities. Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc. owns all of its assets and conducts all of its operations through the operating partnership and the operating partnership is consolidated into Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc.’s financial statements.
We and our operating partnership have filed this prospectus with the SEC registering, among other securities, debt securities of our operating partnership, which will be fully and unconditionally guaranteed by the Company. Under Rule 3-10 of Regulation S-X, separate consolidated financial statements of our operating partnership have not been presented.
As permitted under Rule 13-01(a)(4)(vi) of Regulation S-X, we have excluded the summarized financial information for our operating partnership because the combined assets, liabilities and results of operations of our operating partnership are not materially different than the corresponding amounts in Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc.’s consolidated financial statements incorporated by reference herein, and management believes such summarized financial information would be repetitive and would not provide incremental value to investors.
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USE OF PROCEEDS
Unless otherwise indicated in a prospectus supplement, we will loan or contribute the net proceeds from the offering of securities by us under this prospectus to our operating partnership. Our operating partnership will use such proceeds from us or from any sale of offered securities by it for general business and working capital purposes, including funding investment activity and the repayment of outstanding indebtedness. Pending such uses, net proceeds from the sale of any offered securities initially may be temporarily invested in interest-bearing accounts and short-term, interest-bearing securities or other investments that are consistent with our intention to continue to qualify for taxation as a REIT for federal income tax purposes. Further details relating to the use of the net proceeds from the offering of securities under this prospectus will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
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DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK
General
This prospectus describes the general terms of our common stock. For a more detailed description of our common stock, you should read the applicable provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law (the “MGCL”) and our charter and bylaws. Copies of our charter and bylaws are filed with the SEC and are incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Information Incorporated by Reference.”
Our charter authorizes us to issue up to 500,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share. A majority of our entire board of directors has the power, without stockholder approval, to amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of shares of stock or the number of shares of stock of any class or series that we are authorized to issue. As of June 14, 2024, there were 175,330,314 shares of common stock issued and outstanding.
Under Maryland law, our stockholders generally are not liable for our debts or obligations solely as a result of stockholders’ status as stockholders.
Terms
All shares of our common stock that may be offered and sold pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part will be duly authorized, fully paid and nonassessable. Stockholders are entitled to receive distributions when authorized by our board of directors and declared by us out of assets legally available for the payment of dividends. Stockholders are also entitled to share ratably in our assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, after payment of, or adequate provision for, all of our known debts and liabilities. These rights are subject to the preferential rights of any other class or series of our stock, including any shares of preferred stock we may issue, ranking senior to our common stock and to the provisions of our charter regarding restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock.
Subject to our charter restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock and the terms of any other class or series of our stock, each outstanding share of our common stock entitles the holder thereof to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, including the election of directors. Cumulative voting in the election of directors is not permitted. Directors are elected by a plurality of the votes cast at the meeting in which directors are being elected and at which a quorum is present. This means that the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of our common stock can elect all of the directors then standing for election, and the holders of the remaining shares will not be able to elect any directors.
Our common stockholders have no preference, conversion, exchange, sinking fund or redemption rights and have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any of our capital stock. Our charter provides that our stockholders generally have no appraisal rights unless our board of directors determines that appraisal rights will apply to one or more transactions in which our common stockholders would otherwise be entitled to exercise such rights. Subject to our charter restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, holders of shares of our common stock will have equal dividend, liquidation and other rights.
Under Maryland law, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, amend its charter, merge, sell all or substantially all of its assets, convert into another form of entity, engage in a statutory share exchange or engage in a similar transaction unless such transaction is declared advisable by the board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, unless a lesser percentage (but not less than a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter) is set forth in the corporation’s charter. Our charter provides for approval of these matters by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast on such matter, except that the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on such matter is required to amend the provisions of our charter relating to the removal of directors or the vote required to amend the removal provisions. Maryland law also permits a corporation to transfer all or substantially all of its assets without the approval of its stockholders to an entity, all of the equity interests of which are owned, directly or indirectly, by the corporation.
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Because our operating assets are held by our operating partnership, Essential Properties, L.P. or its wholly owned subsidiaries, these subsidiaries may be able to merge or transfer all or substantially all of their assets without the approval of our stockholders.
Power to Reclassify Unissued Shares of Common Stock and Issue Additional Shares of Common Stock
Our charter authorizes our board of directors to reclassify any unissued shares of our common stock into other classes or series of stock, including classes or series of preferred stock, and to establish the designation and number of shares of each such class or series and to set, subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock and the terms of any other class or series of our stock, the preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption of each such class or series. Thus, our board of directors could authorize the issuance of shares of common stock or preferred stock with terms and conditions which could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change in control that might involve a premium price for our common stock or that our common stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interests.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The registrar and transfer agent for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A.
Listing
Our common stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “EPRT.”
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DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK
General
This prospectus describes the general terms of our preferred stock. For a more detailed description of our preferred stock, you should read the applicable provisions of the MGCL and our charter and bylaws. Copies of our charter and bylaws are filed with the SEC and are incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Information Incorporated by Reference.”
Under our charter, we are authorized to issue up to 150,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share, in one or more classes or series. Under the terms of our charter, our board of directors is authorized to classify any unissued shares of our preferred stock and to reclassify any previously classified but unissued shares of preferred stock into other classes or series of stock. Accordingly, we may issue one or more classes or series of preferred stock with preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption that are senior to the rights of our common stockholders. Before the issuance of shares of each class or series, our board of directors is required by Maryland law and by our charter to set, subject to our charter restrictions on ownership and transfer of stock, the preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption for each such class or series. We have no preferred stock outstanding, and we have no present plans to issue preferred stock in the immediate future.
Terms
The prospectus supplement relating to any class or series of preferred stock that we may offer will contain the specific terms of the class or series of preferred stock. These terms may include the following:
the designation of the class or series and the number of shares of the class or series;
the price at which the preferred stock will be offered;
the dividend rate or rates or method of calculating the rates, the dates on which the dividends will be payable, whether or not dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the dates from which dividends on the preferred stock being offered will cumulate;
the voting rights, if any, of the holders of shares of the preferred stock being offered;
the provisions for a sinking fund, if any, and the provisions for redemption, if applicable, of the preferred stock being offered;
the liquidation preference per share;
the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which the preferred stock being offered will be convertible into our common stock, including the conversion price, or the manner of calculating the conversion price, and the conversion period;
the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which the preferred stock being offered will be exchangeable for debt securities, including the exchange price, or the manner of calculating the exchange price, and the exchange period;
any listing of the preferred stock being offered on any securities exchange;
whether interests in the shares of the class or series will be represented by depositary shares;
a discussion of any material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock being offered;
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the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock being offered as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or the winding up of our affairs;
any limitations on the issuance of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior or equal to the series of preferred stock being offered as to dividend rights or rights upon liquidation, dissolution or the winding up of our affairs;
information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any; and
any additional rights, preferences, qualifications, limitations and restrictions of the series.
Upon issuance, the shares of preferred stock will be fully paid and nonassessable, which means that its holders will have paid their purchase price in full, and we may not require them to pay additional funds. Holders of preferred stock will not have any preemptive rights.
Power to Issue Additional Shares of Preferred Stock
We believe that the power to issue additional shares of our preferred stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of our preferred stock and to issue the classified or reclassified shares provides us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs which might arise. These actions can be taken without action by our stockholders, unless stockholder approval is required by applicable law, the terms of any class or series of our stock or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our stock may be listed or traded. Although we have no present intention of doing so, we could issue a class or series of stock that could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change in control of our company that might involve a premium price for our common stock or that our stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interest. In addition, our issuance of additional shares of stock in the future could dilute the voting and other rights of your shares. See “Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws—Anti-Takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws.”
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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
As used in this section only, references to “we,” “our” and “us” refer either to Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc. or Essential Properties, L.P., as the case may be, as the issuer of the applicable series of debt securities and not to any subsidiaries, unless the context requires otherwise. The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, summarizes certain general terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. When we offer to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the series in a supplement to this prospectus, including the terms of any related guarantees. We will also indicate in the prospectus supplement to what extent the general terms and provisions described in this prospectus apply to a particular series of debt securities. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.
We may issue debt securities either separately, or together with, or upon the conversion or exercise of or in exchange for, other securities described in this prospectus. Debt securities may be our senior, senior subordinated or subordinated obligations and, unless otherwise specified in a prospectus supplement, the debt securities will be our direct, unsecured obligations and may be issued in one or more series.
With respect to any debt securities issued by Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc., such debt securities will be issued under an indenture between Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc. and U.S. Bank Trust Company, National Association, as trustee (the “EPRT Indenture”). With respect to any debt securities issued by Essential Properties, L.P., such debt securities will be issued under the indenture, dated as of June 28, 2021, as amended and supplemented from time to time, among Essential Properties, L.P., Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc. and U.S. Bank Trust Company, National Association (as successor to U.S. Bank National Association), as trustee (the “Operating Partnership Indenture”). Unless the context otherwise requires, references to the “indenture” shall mean the EPRT Indenture and the Operating Partnership Indenture. We have summarized select portions of the indenture below. The summary is not complete. Each of the EPRT Indenture and the Operating Partnership Indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement and you should read the applicable indenture for provisions that may be important to you. Capitalized terms used in the summary and not defined herein have the meanings specified in the indenture.
General
The terms of each series of debt securities will be established by or pursuant to a resolution of the board of directors of Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc. (with respect to debt securities of Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc.) or the member of Essential Properties OP G.P., LLC (with respect to debt securities of Essential Properties, L.P.) and set forth or determined in the manner provided in such resolution, in an officer’s certificate or by a supplemental indenture. The particular terms of each series of debt securities will be described in a prospectus supplement relating to such series (including any pricing supplement or term sheet).
We can issue an unlimited amount of debt securities under the indenture that may be in one or more series with the same or various maturities, at par, at a premium, or at a discount. We will set forth in a prospectus supplement (including any pricing supplement or term sheet) relating to any series of debt securities being offered, the aggregate principal amount and the following terms of the debt securities, if applicable:
whether the issuer of the debt securities is Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc. or Essential Properties, L.P.;
the title and ranking of the debt securities (including the terms of any subordination provisions);
the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount) at which we will sell the debt securities;
any limit on the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;
the date or dates on which the principal of the securities of the series is payable;
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the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or the method used to determine the rate or rates (including any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the debt securities will bear interest, the date or dates from which interest will accrue, the date or dates on which interest will commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;
the place or places where principal of, and any premium and interest on the debt securities will be payable (and the method of such payment), where the securities of such series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange, and where notices and demands to us in respect of the debt securities may be delivered;
the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which we may redeem the debt securities;
any obligation we have to redeem or purchase the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a holder of debt securities and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;
the dates on which and the price or prices at which we will repurchase debt securities at the option of the holders of debt securities and other detailed terms and provisions of these repurchase obligations;
the denominations in which the debt securities will be issued, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;
whether the debt securities will be issued in the form of certificated debt securities or global debt securities;
the portion of principal amount of the debt securities payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date, if other than the principal amount;
the currency of denomination of the debt securities, which may be United States Dollars or any foreign currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;
the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of principal of, and any premium and interest on the debt securities will be made;
if payments of principal of, or any premium or interest on the debt securities will be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which the debt securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to these payments will be determined;
the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities will be determined, if these amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;
any provisions relating to any security provided for the debt securities or any guarantees;
any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default (as defined below) described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities and any change in the acceleration provisions described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;
any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;
any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to the debt securities;
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the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of such series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price and period, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, at the option of the holders thereof or at our option, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange;
any other terms of the debt securities, which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of the indenture as it applies to that series, including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of the securities; and
whether any of our direct or indirect subsidiaries will guarantee the debt securities of that series, including the terms of subordination, if any, of such guarantees.
We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.
If we denominate the purchase price of any of the debt securities in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, or if the principal of and any premium and interest on any series of debt securities is payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, we will provide you with information on the restrictions, elections, general tax considerations, specific terms and other information with respect to that issue of debt securities and such foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Transfer and Exchange
Each debt security will be represented by either one or more global securities registered in the name of The Depository Trust Company (the “Depositary”), or a nominee of the Depositary (we will refer to any debt security represented by a global debt security as a “book-entry debt security”), or a certificate issued in definitive registered form (we will refer to any debt security represented by a certificated security as a “certificated debt security”) as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Except as set forth under the heading “Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System” below, book-entry debt securities will not be issuable in certificated form.
Certificated Debt Securities. You may transfer or exchange certificated debt securities at any office we maintain for this purpose in accordance with the terms of the indenture. No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of certificated debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with a transfer or exchange.
You may effect the transfer of certificated debt securities and the right to receive the principal of, premium and interest on certificated debt securities only by surrendering the certificate representing those certificated debt securities and either reissuance by us or the trustee of the certificate to the new holder or the issuance by us or the trustee of a new certificate to the new holder.
Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System. Each global debt security representing book-entry debt securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, the Depositary, and registered in the name of the Depositary or a nominee of the Depositary. Please see “Global Securities.”
Covenants
We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement any restrictive covenants applicable to any issue of debt securities.
No Protection in the Event of a Change of Control
Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions which may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in
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the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control) which could adversely affect holders of debt securities.
Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets
Under the indenture, we or our operating partnership may consolidate with, or sell, lease or convey all or substantially all of our respective assets to, or merge with or into, any other entity, provided that the following conditions are met:
we or our operating partnership, as the case may be, shall be the continuing entity, or the successor entity (if other than us or our operating partnership, as the case may be) formed by or resulting from any consolidation or merger or which shall have received the transfer of assets shall be an entity organized and existing under U.S. laws and expressly assume payment of principal of, and premium, if any, and interest, if any, on, all of the debt securities and the due and punctual performance and observance of all of the covenants and conditions in the indenture;
immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Event of Default under the indenture, and no event which, after notice or the lapse of time, or both, would become an Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing; and
an officer’s certificate covering these conditions shall be delivered to the trustee.
In the case of any such consolidation, sale, conveyance or merger, but not a lease, in a transaction in which there is a successor entity, the successor entity will succeed to, and be substituted for, us or our operating partnership, as the case may be, under the indenture and, subject to the terms of the indenture, we or our operating partnership, as the case may be, will be released from our or its obligations, as the case may be, under the indenture.
Although there is a limited body of case law interpreting the phrase “all or substantially all,” there is no precise established definition of the phrase under applicable law. Accordingly, there is uncertainty as to whether a particular transaction would involve “all or substantially all” of the property or assets of a person.
Guarantees
Unless otherwise described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities issued by Essential Properties, L.P. will be fully and unconditionally guaranteed by Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc. These guarantees will be joint and several obligations of the guarantor. If a series of debt securities is so guaranteed, an indenture, or a supplemental indenture thereto, will be executed by the guarantor. The obligations of the guarantor under the guarantee will be limited as necessary to prevent that guarantee from constituting a fraudulent conveyance under applicable law. The terms of the guarantee will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Events of Default
“Event of Default” means with respect to any series of debt securities, any of the following:
default for 30 days in the payment of any installment of interest under any series of debt securities;
default in the payment of the principal amount or any other portion of the redemption price due with respect to any series of debt securities, when the same becomes due and payable;
if applicable, the guarantee of the guarantor is not (or is claimed by the guarantor in writing to the trustee not to be) in full force and effect (other than in accordance with the terms of the indenture) with respect to any series of debt securities;
failure by us or the guarantor to comply with any of our or the guarantor’s respective other agreements in any series of debt securities or the indenture with respect to such series of debt securities upon receipt by us of notice of such default by the trustee or by holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of
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such series of debt securities then outstanding and our failure to cure (or obtain a waiver of) such default within 60 days after we receive such notice; or
certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, or court appointment of a receiver, liquidator or trustee of us or the guarantor, if applicable, or all or substantially all of their respective property.
If an Event of Default with respect to any series of debt securities occurs and is continuing (other than an Event of Default specified in the last bullet immediately above, which shall result in an automatic acceleration), then, in every case, the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series may declare the principal amount of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all of the debt securities of such series to be due and payable immediately by written notice thereof to us (and to the trustee if given by the holders). However, at any time after the declaration of acceleration with respect any series of debt securities has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series may rescind and annul the declaration and its consequences if:
we or the guarantor, if applicable, shall have deposited with the trustee all required payments of the principal of, and premium, if any, and interest on, such series of debt securities, plus certain fees, expenses, disbursements and advances of the trustee; and
all Events of Default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal of (or specified portion thereof), or premium, if any, and interest on, such series of debt securities, have been cured or waived as provided in the indenture.
The indenture also provides that the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding series of debt securities may waive any past default with respect to such series of debt securities and its consequences, except a default:
in the payment of the principal of, and premium, if any, and interest on, such series of debt securities (provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration); or
in respect of a covenant or provision contained in the indenture that cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holder of each outstanding debt security affected thereby.
The trustee will be required to give notice to the holders of such series of debt securities within 90 days of a default with respect to such debt securities actually known to the trustee under the indenture unless the default has been cured or waived; provided, however, that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of such series of debt securities of any default with respect to such debt securities (except a default in the payment of the principal of, and premium, if any, and interest on, such debt securities) if the trustee considers such withholding to be in the interest of the holders of such debt securities.
The indenture provides that no holder of any series of debt securities may institute any proceedings, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture or for any remedy thereunder, except in the case of failure of the trustee, for 60 days, to act after it has received a written request to institute proceedings in respect of an Event of Default with respect to a series of debt securities from the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series, as well as an offer of indemnity reasonably satisfactory to it. This provision will not prevent, however, any holder of debt securities from instituting suit for the enforcement of payment of the principal of, and premium, if any, and interest on, such debt securities at the respective due dates thereof. A holder of debt securities may not use the indenture to prejudice the rights of another holder of debt securities or to obtain a preference or priority over another holder of debt securities, except in the manner provided therein and for the equal and ratable benefit of all holders of such series of debt securities.
Subject to provisions in the indenture relating to its duties in case of default, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture at the request or direction of any holders of debt securities
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then outstanding under the indenture, unless the holders of debt securities shall have offered to the trustee security or indemnity reasonably satisfactory to it. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series (or of all the debt securities then outstanding under the indenture, as the case may be) shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or of exercising any trust or power conferred upon the trustee. However, the trustee may refuse to follow any direction which is in conflict with any law or the indenture, or which the trustee determines would involve the trustee in personal liability.
Within 120 days after the close of each fiscal year, we and the guarantor, if applicable, must deliver an officer’s certificate certifying to the trustee whether or not the signing officers have knowledge of any default under the indenture and, if so, specifying each default and the nature and status thereof.
Modification and Waiver
Modifications and amendments of the indenture with respect to the debt securities of each series will be permitted to be made only with the consent of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of all outstanding debt securities of each series; provided, however, that no modification or amendment may, without the consent of each holder affected:
reduce the amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment or waiver;
reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any debt security;
reduce the principal of, or premium, if any, on, or change the fixed maturity of, any debt security;
waive a default or Event of Default in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, any debt security (except a rescission of acceleration of the debt securities of any series by the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of that series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);
make the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on any debt security payable in currency other than that stated in the debt security;
make any change to certain provisions of the indenture relating to, among other things, the right of holders of debt securities to receive payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, those debt securities and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment and to waivers or amendments;
waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt security; or
if applicable, release the guarantor as a guarantor of any debt security other than as provided in the indenture or modify the guarantee in any manner adverse to the holders of any debt security.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, modifications and amendments of the indenture with respect to the debt securities of any series will be permitted to be made by us and the trustee without the consent of any holder of any debt security for any of the following purposes:
to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture if this action shall not adversely affect the interests of holders of any debt security in any material respect;
to evidence a successor to us as obligor or the guarantor as guarantor, if applicable, under the indenture with respect to such debt securities;
to make any change that does not adversely affect the interests of the holders of any debt security then outstanding;
to provide for the issuance of additional debt securities in accordance with the limitations set forth in the indenture;
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to provide for the acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee or facilitate the administration of the trusts under the indenture by more than one trustee;
to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended;
if applicable, to reflect the release of the guarantor, as guarantor, in accordance with the provisions of the indenture;
to secure any series of debt securities; and
to add guarantors with respect to any series of debt securities.
In determining whether the holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding debt securities of a particular series have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver thereunder or whether a quorum is present at a meeting of holders of debt securities of such series, the indenture provides that debt securities owned by us or the guarantor, if applicable, or any other obligor upon the debt securities of such series or any affiliate of ours or the guarantor, if applicable, or any of the other obligors shall be disregarded.
Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances
Legal Defeasance. The indenture provides that we may be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the debt securities of any series (except for certain obligations to register the transfer or exchange of debt securities, to replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities, and to maintain paying agencies and certain provisions relating to the treatment of funds held by paying agents). We will be so discharged upon the irrevocable deposit with the trustee, in trust, of cash in U.S. dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations (as defined below) that, through the payment of principal and interest in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants to pay and discharge each installment of principal of, and premium, if any, and interest, if any, on, the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities.
This discharge may occur only if, among other things, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable U.S. federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred.
“U.S. Government Obligations” means securities which are direct obligations of, or guaranteed by, The United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depositary receipt, if such custodian is not authorized (except as required by law) to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.
Defeasance of Certain Covenants. The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, upon compliance with certain conditions:
we may omit to comply with certain covenants set forth in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants which may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement; and
any omission to comply with those covenants will not constitute a default or an Event of Default with respect to the debt securities of that series (“covenant defeasance”).
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The conditions include:
irrevocably depositing with the trustee cash in U.S. dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations that, through the payment of principal and interest in accordance with their terms, will provide cash in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants to pay and discharge each installment of principal of, and premium, if any, and interest, if any, on debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities; and
delivering to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and related covenant defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit and related covenant defeasance had not occurred.
If we exercise our option to effect covenant defeasance with respect to the debt securities of any series and such debt securities are declared due and payable because of the occurrence of any Event of Default, the amount of cash in U.S. dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations on deposit with the trustee may not be sufficient to pay amounts due on such debt securities at the time of the acceleration resulting from the Event of Default. In such a case, we would remain liable for those payments.
Satisfaction and Discharge
The indenture will provide that it will be discharged and will cease to be of further effect as to all debt securities of a particular series issued thereunder, when:
either:
all debt securities of such series that have been authenticated and delivered (other than debt securities of such series that have been destroyed, lost or stolen or destroyed and that have been replaced or paid and debt securities of such series for whose payment money has been deposited in trust and thereafter repaid) have been delivered to the trustee for cancellation; or
all debt securities of such series that have not been delivered to the trustee for cancellation: (i) have become due and payable by reason of sending a notice of redemption or otherwise; (ii) will become due and payable at their stated maturity within one year; (iii) have been called for redemption or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the trustee for the giving of notice of redemption by the trustee in our name, and at our expense; or (iv) are deemed paid and discharged as set forth under the caption “—Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances—Legal Defeasance”; and we, in case of (i), (ii) or (iii), have irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the trustee in trust cash in U.S. dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations that, through the payment of principal and interest in accordance with their terms, will provide cash sufficient to pay and discharge the entire indebtedness on the debt securities of such series not delivered to the trustee for cancellation for principal of, and premium, if any, and interest, if any, on, the debt securities of such series to the date of maturity or redemption, as the case may be, in accordance with the terms of the indenture and the debt securities of such series;
we have paid or caused to be paid all sums payable by it under the indenture; and
we have delivered to the trustee any deliverables required under the indenture.
No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees or Stockholders
Except as provided in the indenture, no past, present or future trustee, director, officer, employee, stockholder, member, manager or partner of ours or of the guarantor, if applicable, or of any successor to us or the guarantor, if applicable, will have any liability for any of our or the guarantor’s obligations under the debt securities or the indenture or for any claim based on, in respect of, or by reason of, such obligations or their creation. Each holder of
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debt securities by accepting such debt securities waives and releases all such liability. The waiver and release are part of the consideration for the issue of debt securities.
Governing Law
The indenture, the debt securities and any guarantees, including any claim or controversy arising out of or relating to the indenture or the securities, will be governed by the laws of the State of New York.
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DESCRIPTION OF OTHER SECURITIES
We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement a description of any depositary shares, warrants, rights or units issued by us that may be offered and sold pursuant to this prospectus.
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GLOBAL SECURITIES
Book-Entry, Delivery and Form
Unless we indicate differently in any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, the offered securities initially will be issued in book-entry form and represented by one or more global notes or global certificates (collectively, “global securities”). The global securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, as depositary (“DTC”), and registered in the name of Cede & Co., the nominee of DTC. Unless and until it is exchanged for individual certificates evidencing securities under the limited circumstances described below, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary to its nominee or by the nominee to the depositary, or by the depositary or its nominee to a successor depositary or to a nominee of the successor depositary.
DTC has advised us that it is:
a limited-purpose trust company organized under the New York Banking Law;
a “banking organization” within the meaning of the New York Banking Law;
a member of the Federal Reserve System;
a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code; and
a “clearing agency” registered pursuant to the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act.
DTC holds securities that its participants deposit with DTC. DTC also facilitates the settlement among its participants of securities transactions, such as transfers and pledges, in deposited securities through electronic computerized book-entry changes in participants’ accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. “Direct participants” in DTC include securities brokers and dealers, including underwriters, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other organizations. DTC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation (“DTCC”). DTCC is the holding company for DTC, National Securities Clearing Corporation and Fixed Income Clearing Corporation, all of which are registered clearing agencies. DTCC is owned by the users of its regulated subsidiaries. Access to the DTC system is also available to others, which we sometimes refer to as indirect participants, that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a direct participant, either directly or indirectly. The rules applicable to DTC and its participants are on file with the SEC.
Purchases of securities under the DTC system must be made by or through direct participants, which will receive a credit for the securities on DTC’s records. The ownership interest of the actual purchaser of a security, which we sometimes refer to as a beneficial owner, is in turn recorded on the direct and indirect participants’ records. Beneficial owners of securities will not receive written confirmation from DTC of their purchases. However, beneficial owners are expected to receive written confirmations providing details of their transactions, as well as periodic statements of their holdings, from the direct or indirect participants through which they purchased securities. Transfers of ownership interests in global securities are to be accomplished by entries made on the books of participants acting on behalf of beneficial owners. Beneficial owners will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in the global securities, except under the limited circumstances described below.
To facilitate subsequent transfers, all global securities deposited by direct participants with DTC will be registered in the name of DTC’s partnership nominee, Cede & Co., or such other name as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. The deposit of securities with DTC and their registration in the name of Cede & Co. or such other nominee will not change the beneficial ownership of the securities. DTC has no knowledge of the actual beneficial owners of the securities. DTC’s records reflect only the identity of the direct participants to whose accounts the securities are credited, which may or may not be the beneficial owners. The participants are responsible for keeping account of their holdings on behalf of their customers.
So long as the securities are in book-entry form, you will receive payments and may transfer securities only through the facilities of the depositary and its direct and indirect participants. We will maintain an office or agency in the location specified in the prospectus supplement for the applicable securities, where notices and demands in
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respect of the securities and the indenture may be delivered to us and where certificated securities may be surrendered for payment, registration of transfer or exchange.
Conveyance of notices and other communications by DTC to direct participants, by direct participants to indirect participants and by direct participants and indirect participants to beneficial owners will be governed by arrangements among them, subject to any legal requirements in effect from time to time.
Redemption notices will be sent to DTC. If less than all of the securities of a particular series are being redeemed, DTC’s practice is to determine by lot the amount of the interest of each direct participant in the securities of such series to be redeemed.
Neither DTC nor Cede & Co. (or such other DTC nominee) will consent or vote with respect to the offered securities. Under its usual procedures, DTC will mail an omnibus proxy to us as soon as possible after the record date. The omnibus proxy assigns the consenting or voting rights of Cede & Co. to those direct participants to whose accounts the securities of such series are credited on the record date, identified in a listing attached to the omnibus proxy.
So long as the offered securities are in book-entry form, we will make payments on those securities to the depositary or its nominee, as the registered owner of such securities, by wire transfer of immediately available funds. If the offered securities are issued in definitive certificated form under the limited circumstances described below and unless if otherwise provided in the description of the applicable securities herein or in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will have the option of making payments by check mailed to the addresses of the persons entitled to payment or by wire transfer to bank accounts in the United States designated in writing to the applicable trustee or other designated party at least 15 days before the applicable payment date by the persons entitled to payment, unless a shorter period is satisfactory to the applicable trustee or other designated party.
Redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments on the offered securities will be made to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. DTC’s practice is to credit direct participants’ accounts upon DTC’s receipt of funds and corresponding detail information from us on the payment date in accordance with their respective holdings shown on DTC records. Payments by participants to beneficial owners will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the account of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name.” Those payments will be the responsibility of participants and not of DTC or us, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements in effect from time to time. Payment of redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC, is our responsibility, disbursement of payments to direct participants is the responsibility of DTC, and disbursement of payments to the beneficial owners is the responsibility of direct and indirect participants.
Except under the limited circumstances described below, purchasers of offered securities will not be entitled to have such securities registered in their names and will not receive physical delivery of such securities. Accordingly, each beneficial owner must rely on the procedures of DTC and its participants to exercise any rights under the securities and the indenture.
The laws of some jurisdictions may require that some purchasers of the offered securities take physical delivery of such securities in definitive form. Those laws may impair the ability to transfer or pledge beneficial interests in the offered securities.
DTC may discontinue providing its services as securities depositary with respect to the offered securities at any time by giving reasonable notice to us. Under such circumstances, in the event that a successor depositary is not obtained, securities certificates are required to be printed and delivered.
As noted above, beneficial owners of a particular series of the offered securities generally will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in those securities. However, if:
DTC notifies us that it is unwilling or unable to continue as a depositary for the global security or securities representing such series of securities or if DTC ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the
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Exchange Act at a time when it is required to be registered and a successor depositary is not appointed within 90 days of the notification to us or of our becoming aware of DTC’s ceasing to be so registered, as the case may be;
we determine, in our sole discretion, not to have such securities represented by one or more global securities; or
an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing with respect to such series of securities, we will prepare and deliver certificates for such securities in exchange for beneficial interests in the global securities. Any beneficial interest in a global security that is exchangeable under the circumstances described in the preceding sentence will be exchangeable for securities in definitive certificated form registered in the names that the depositary directs. It is expected that these directions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from its participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global securities.
We have obtained the information in this section and elsewhere in this prospectus concerning DTC and DTC’s book-entry system from sources that are believed to be reliable, but we take no responsibility for the accuracy of this information.
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RESTRICTIONS ON OWNERSHIP AND TRANSFER
In order for us to maintain our qualification for taxation as a REIT under Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), our stock must be beneficially owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made) or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. Also, not more than 50% of the value of the outstanding shares of stock (after taking into account options to acquire shares of stock) may be owned, directly or through certain constructive ownership rules, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities such as private foundations) at any time during the last half of a taxable year (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made).
Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock that are intended to assist us in complying with these requirements and maintaining our qualification as a REIT, among other reasons. The relevant sections of our charter provide that no person or entity may actually or beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 9.8% (in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the aggregate of the outstanding shares of our common stock or 9.8% in value of the aggregate of the outstanding shares of all classes and series of our stock, in each case excluding any shares of our stock that are not treated as outstanding for federal income tax purposes. We refer to each of these restrictions as an “ownership limit” and collectively as the “ownership limits.” A person or entity that would have acquired actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of our stock but for the application of the ownership limits or any of the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock discussed below is referred to as a “prohibited owner.”
The constructive ownership rules under the Code are complex and may cause stock owned actually or constructively by a group of related individuals and/or entities to be owned constructively by one individual or entity. As a result, the acquisition of less than 9.8% of our common stock (or the acquisition of an interest in an entity that owns, actually or constructively, our common stock) by an individual or entity could, nevertheless, cause that individual or entity, or another individual or entity, to own constructively in excess of 9.8% (in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the outstanding shares of our common stock and thereby violate the applicable ownership limit.
In addition, certain entities that are defined as designated investment entities in our charter, which generally includes pension funds, mutual funds and certain investment management companies, are permitted to own up to 9.8% (in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding common stock, or 9.8% (in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the aggregate of the outstanding shares of all classes and series of stock, so long as each beneficial owner of the shares owned by such designated investment entity would satisfy the ownership limits if those beneficial owners owned directly their pro rata share of our stock owned by the designated investment entity.
Our charter provides that our board of directors, subject to certain limits, upon receipt of a request that complies with any requirement or policy adopted by our board of directors, may retroactively or prospectively exempt a person from either or both of the ownership limits or the designated investment entity limit and establish a different limit on ownership for such person.
Our board of directors may increase or decrease one or both of the ownership limits or the designated investment entity limit for one or more persons, except that a decreased ownership limit will not be effective for any person whose actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of our stock exceeds the decreased ownership limit or decreased designated investment entity limit at the time of the decrease until the person’s actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of our stock equals or falls below the decreased ownership limit or decreased designated investment entity limit, although any further acquisition of our stock (other than by a previously exempted person) will violate the decreased ownership limit or decreased designated investment entity limit, as applicable. Our board of directors may not increase or decrease any ownership limit or the designated investment entity limit if the new ownership limit or the designated investment entity limit would allow five or fewer persons to actually or beneficially own more than 49.9% in value of our outstanding stock or would cause us to be “closely held” under
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Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise cause us to fail to continue to qualify as a REIT.
Our charter further prohibits:
any person from actually, beneficially or constructively owning shares of our stock that would result in us being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise cause us to fail to continue to qualify as a REIT (including, but not limited to, actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our stock that would result in us owning (actually or constructively) an interest in a tenant that is described in Section 856(d)(2)(B) of the Code if the income we derive from such tenant, taking into account our other income that would not qualify under the gross income requirements of Section 856(c) of the Code, would cause us to fail to satisfy any of the gross income requirements imposed on REITs); and;
any person from transferring shares of our stock if such transfer would result in shares of our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined under the principles of Section 856(a)(5) of the Code).
Any person who acquires or attempts or intends to acquire actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our stock that will or may violate the ownership limits, the designated investment entity limit or any of the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock described above must give written notice immediately to us or, in the case of a proposed or attempted transaction, provide us at least 15 days prior written notice, and provide us with such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of such transfer on our status as a REIT.
The ownership limits, the designated investment entity limit and other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock described above will not apply if our board of directors determines that it is no longer in our best interests to continue to qualify or attempt to qualify as a REIT or that compliance with any such restriction is no longer required in order for us to continue to qualify as a REIT.
Pursuant to our charter, if any purported transfer of our stock or any other event would otherwise result in any person violating the ownership limits, the designated investment entity limit or such other limit established by our board of directors, would result in us being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise failing to continue to qualify as a REIT, then the number of shares causing the violation (rounded up to the nearest whole share) will be automatically transferred to, and held by, a trust for the exclusive benefit of one or more charitable beneficiaries selected by us. The prohibited owner will have no rights in shares of our stock held by the trustee. The automatic transfer will be effective as of the close of business on the business day prior to the date of the violative transfer or other event that results in the transfer to the trust. Any dividend or other distribution paid to the prohibited owner prior to our discovery that the shares had been automatically transferred to a trust as described above must be repaid to the trustee upon demand and any dividend or other distribution authorized but unpaid shall be paid when due to the trustee. If the transfer to the trust as described above is not automatically effective, for any reason, to prevent violation of the applicable restriction on ownership and transfer of our stock, then the transfer of the number of shares that otherwise would cause any person to violate the above restrictions will be void and of no force or effect, regardless of any action or inaction by the board of directors, and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in the shares. If any transfer of our stock would result in shares of our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined under the principles of Section 856(a)(5) of the Code), then any such purported transfer will be void and of no force or effect and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in the shares.
Shares of our stock transferred to the trustee are deemed offered for sale to us, or our designee, at a price per share equal to the lesser of (1) the price per share in the transaction that resulted in the transfer of the shares to the trust (or, in the event of a gift or devise, the last sale price reported on the NYSE on the day of the transfer or other event that resulted in the transfer of such shares to the trust) and (2) the last sale price reported on the NYSE on the date we accept, or our designee accepts, such offer. We must reduce the amount payable to the trustee by the amount of dividends and distributions paid to the prohibited owner and owed by the prohibited owner to the trustee and may
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pay the amount of such reduction to the trustee for the benefit of the charitable beneficiary. We have the right to accept such offer until the trustee has sold the shares of our stock held in the trust. Upon a sale to us, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold terminates and the trustee must distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the prohibited owner and any dividends or other distributions held by the trustee with respect to such stock will be paid to the charitable beneficiary.
Within 20 days of receiving notice from us of the transfer of shares to the trust, the trustee must sell the shares to a person or persons designated by the trustee who can own the shares without violating the ownership limits, the designated investment entity limit or the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock. Upon such sale, the interest of the charitable beneficiary will terminate and the trustee must distribute to the prohibited owner an amount equal to the lesser of (1) the price paid by the prohibited owner for the shares (or, if the prohibited owner did not give value in connection with the transfer or other event that resulted in the transfer to the trust (e.g., a gift, devise or other such transaction), the last sale price reported on the NYSE on the day of the transfer or other event that resulted in the transfer of such shares to the trust) and (2) the sales proceeds (net of commissions and other expenses of sale) received by the trustee for the shares. The trustee must reduce the amount payable to the prohibited owner by the amount of dividends and other distributions paid to the prohibited owner and owed by the prohibited owner to the trustee. Any net sales proceeds in excess of the amount payable to the prohibited owner will be immediately paid to the charitable beneficiary, together with any dividends or other distributions on such shares. In addition, if prior to discovery by us that shares of our stock have been transferred to the trustee, such shares of stock are sold by a prohibited owner, then such shares shall be deemed to have been sold on behalf of the trust and, to the extent that the prohibited owner received an amount for or in respect of such shares that exceeds the amount that such prohibited owner was entitled to receive, such excess amount must be paid to the trustee upon demand.
The trustee will be appointed by us and will be unaffiliated with us and with any prohibited owner. Prior to the sale of any shares by the trust, the trustee will receive, in trust for the beneficiary, all dividends and other distributions paid by us with respect to such shares, and may exercise all voting rights with respect to such shares for the exclusive benefit of the charitable beneficiary.
Subject to Maryland law, effective as of the date that the shares have been transferred to the trust, the trustee may, at the trustee’s sole and absolute discretion:
rescind as void any vote cast by a prohibited owner prior to our discovery that the shares have been transferred to the trust; and
recast the vote in accordance with the desires of the trustee acting for the benefit of the charitable beneficiary.
However, if we have already taken irreversible corporate action, then the trustee may not rescind and recast the vote.
If our board of directors determines that a proposed transfer or other event has taken place that violates the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock set forth in our charter (whether or not a violation is intended), our board of directors may take such action as it deems advisable to refuse to give effect to or to prevent such transfer, including, but not limited to, causing us to redeem shares of stock, refusing to give effect to the transfer on our books or instituting proceedings to enjoin the transfer.
Every owner of 5% or more (or such lower percentage as required by the Code or the Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder) of the outstanding shares of our stock, within 30 days after the end of each taxable year, must give written notice to us stating the name and address of such owner, the number of shares of each class and series of our stock that the owner actually or beneficially owns and a description of the manner in which the shares are held. Each such owner also must provide to us in writing any additional information that we may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of the person’s actual or beneficial ownership on our status as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the ownership limits, the designated investment entity limit and the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock set forth in our charter. In addition, any person that is an actual, beneficial owner or constructive owner of shares of our stock and any person (including the stockholder of record) who is holding shares of our stock for an actual, beneficial owner or constructive owner must disclose to us in writing such information as
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we may request in order to determine our status as a REIT and comply with requirements of any taxing authority or governmental authority or to determine such compliance.
Any certificates representing shares of our stock will bear a legend referring to the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock described above. However, in lieu of a legend, the certificate may state that we will furnish a full statement regarding the applicable restrictions on ownership and transfer to the stockholder on request and without charge.
These restrictions on ownership and transfer could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for our common stock that our stockholders believe to be in their best interest.
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CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS
The following summary of certain provisions of Maryland law and our charter and bylaws does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to our charter and bylaws, copies of which are incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and to Maryland law. See “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Information Incorporated by Reference.”
Our Board of Directors
Under our charter and bylaws, the number of directors of our company may be established, increased or decreased only by a majority of our entire board of directors but may not be fewer than the minimum number required under the MGCL (which is one) nor, unless our bylaws are amended, more than 15.
Removal of Directors
Our charter provides that, subject to the rights of holders of one or more classes or series of preferred stock to elect or remove one or more directors, a director may be removed only for cause (as defined in our charter), and then only by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors.
Business Combinations
Under the MGCL, certain “business combinations” (including a merger, consolidation, statutory share exchange or, in certain circumstances specified under the statute, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities) between a Maryland corporation and any interested stockholder, or an affiliate of such an interested stockholder, are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Maryland law defines an interested stockholder as:
any person who beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock; or
an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner of 10% or more of the voting power of the then outstanding voting stock of the corporation.
A person is not an interested stockholder under the MGCL if the board of directors approved in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. In approving a transaction, the board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance, at or after the time of the approval, with any terms and conditions determined by it.
After such five-year period, any such business combination must be recommended by the board of directors of the corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of at least:
80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation, voting together as a single voting group; and
two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of voting stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom (or with whose affiliate) the business combination is to be effected or held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder, voting together as a single voting group.
These supermajority approval requirements do not apply if, among other conditions, the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price (as defined in the MGCL) for their shares and the consideration is received in cash or in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares.
These provisions of the MGCL do not apply, however, to business combinations that are approved or exempted by a corporation’s board of directors prior to the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. As permitted by the MGCL, our board of directors has adopted a resolution exempting any business
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combination between us and any other person from the provisions of this statute. Consequently, the five-year prohibition and the supermajority vote requirements will not apply to business combinations involving us. As a result, any person will be able to enter into business combinations with us that may not be in the best interests of our stockholders, without compliance with the supermajority vote requirements and other provisions of the statute. Our bylaws provide that this resolution or any other resolution of our board of directors exempting any business combination from the business combination provisions of the MGCL may only be revoked, altered or amended, and our board of directors may only adopt an inconsistent resolution, if approved by the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast on the matter by stockholders entitled to vote generally in the election of directors.
Control Share Acquisitions
The MGCL provides that a holder of “control shares” of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” has no voting rights with respect to those shares except to the extent approved by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by stockholders entitled to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power in the election of directors generally but excluding: (1) the person who has made or proposes to make the control share acquisition; (2) any officer of the corporation; or (3) any employee of the corporation who is also a director of the corporation. “Control shares” are voting shares of stock that, if aggregated with all other such shares of stock previously acquired by the acquirer or in respect of which the acquirer is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquirer to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges:
one-tenth or more but less than one-third;
one-third or more but less than a majority; or
a majority or more of all voting power.
Control shares do not include shares that the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval. A “control share acquisition” means the acquisition, directly or indirectly, of ownership of, or the power to direct the exercise of voting power with respect to, issued and outstanding control shares, subject to certain exceptions.
A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition, upon satisfaction of certain conditions (including an undertaking to pay expenses and making an “acquiring person statement” as described in the MGCL), may compel the board of directors of the Maryland corporation to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the control shares. If no request for a special meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders meeting.
If voting rights of control shares are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an “acquiring person statement” as required by the statute, then, subject to certain conditions and limitations, the corporation may redeem any or all of the control shares (except those for which voting rights have previously been approved) for fair value determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquirer or, if a meeting of stockholders is held at which the voting rights of such shares are considered and not approved, as of the date of such meeting. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders meeting and the acquirer becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of such appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquirer in the control share acquisition.
The control share acquisition statute does not apply (1) to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or statutory share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (2) to acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation.
Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any and all control share acquisitions by any person of shares of our stock, and this provision of our bylaws cannot be amended without the
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affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast on the matter by stockholders entitled to vote generally in the election of directors.
Subtitle 8
Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors to elect, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to be subject to any or all of the following five provisions:
a classified board;
a two-thirds vote requirement for removing a director;
a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by vote of the directors;
a requirement that a vacancy on the board be filled only by a vote of the remaining directors (whether or not they constitute a quorum) and for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred and until a successor is elected and qualifies; or
a majority requirement for the calling of a special meeting of stockholders.
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We have elected to be subject to the provision of Subtitle 8 providing that vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by the remaining directors (whether or not they constitute a quorum) and that a director elected by the board of directors to fill a vacancy will serve for the remainder of the full term of the directorship. We have not elected to be subject to any of the other provisions of Subtitle 8, including the provisions that would permit us to classify our board of directors without stockholder approval. Moreover, our charter provides that, without the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast on the matter by stockholders entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, we may not elect to be subject to any of these additional provisions of Subtitle 8. Through provisions in our charter and bylaws unrelated to Subtitle 8, we (1) vest in our board of directors the exclusive power to fix the number of directors, (2) require, unless called by our chairman, our chief executive officer, our president or our board of directors, the request of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at the meeting to call a special meeting of stockholders and (3) provide that a director may be removed only for cause (as defined in our charter), and then only by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors.
Amendments to Our Charter and Bylaws
Except as described herein and as provided in the MGCL, amendments to our charter must be advised by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of our stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Any amendment to the provisions of our charter relating to the removal of directors or amendments to such provisions will require the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Our board of directors has the power to amend our bylaws, provided that amendments to the provisions of our bylaws (i) prohibiting our board of directors from revoking, altering or amending its resolution exempting any business combination from the “business combination” provisions of the MGCL or (ii) exempting any acquisition of our stock from the “control share” provisions of the MGCL must be approved by the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast on the matter by our stockholders entitled to vote generally in the election of directors. In addition, our stockholders may amend our bylaws, to the extent permitted by law, if any such amendment is approved by the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.
Meetings of Stockholders
Under our bylaws and pursuant to Maryland law, annual meetings of stockholders will be held each year at a date and time, and at a place or by means of remote communication, as determined by our board of directors. Special meetings of stockholders may be called by our board of directors, the chairman of our board of directors, our president or our chief executive officer. Additionally, special meetings of the stockholders to act on any matter must be called by our secretary upon the written request of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast on such matter at such meeting who have requested the special meeting in accordance with the procedures set forth in, and provided the information and certifications required by, our bylaws. Only matters set forth in the notice of the special meeting may be considered and acted upon at such a meeting. Our secretary will inform the requesting stockholders of the reasonably estimated cost of preparing and delivering the notice of meeting (including our proxy materials), and the requesting stockholder must pay such estimated cost before our secretary may prepare and deliver the notice of the special meeting.
Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business
Our bylaws provide that:
with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors and the proposal of other business to be considered by stockholders at the annual meeting may be made only:
pursuant to our notice of the meeting;
by or at the direction of our board of directors; or
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by a stockholder who was a stockholder of record at the record date set by the board of directors for the meeting, at the time of giving of the notice of the meeting and at the time of the annual meeting (and any postponement or adjournment thereof), who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated or on such other business and who has complied with the advance notice procedures set forth in, and provided the information and certifications required by, our bylaws; and
with respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our company’s notice of meeting may be brought before the special meeting of stockholders, and nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors at a special meeting duly called for the purpose of electing directors may be made only:
by or at the direction of our board of directors; or
by a stockholder who is a stockholder of record at the record date set by the board of directors for the meeting, at the time of giving of the notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the meeting (and any postponement or adjournment thereof), who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated and who has complied with the advance notice provisions set forth in, and provided the information and certifications required by, our bylaws.
Requiring stockholders to give advance notice of nominations and other proposals affords our board of directors and our stockholders the opportunity to consider the qualifications of the proposed nominees or the advisability of the other proposals and, to the extent considered necessary by our board of directors, to inform stockholders and make recommendations regarding the nominations or other proposals. Although our bylaws do not give our board of directors the power to disapprove timely stockholder nominations and proposals, our bylaws may have the effect of precluding a contest for the election of directors or proposals for other action if the proper procedures are not followed, and of discouraging or deterring a third party from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect its own slate of directors to our board of directors or to approve its own proposal.
Anti-Takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws
The restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, the supermajority vote and cause requirements to remove directors, our election to be subject to the provision of Subtitle 8 vesting in our board of directors the exclusive power to fill vacancies on our board of directors and the advance notice provisions of our bylaws could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company.
Further, a majority of our entire board of directors has the power, without stockholder action, to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of stock or the number of shares of any class or series of stock that we are authorized to issue, to classify and reclassify any unissued shares of our stock into other classes or series of stock, and to authorize us to issue the newly classified shares, as discussed under the captions “Description of Common Stock” and “Description of Preferred Stock—Power to Issue Additional Shares of Preferred Stock” and could authorize the issuance of shares of common stock or another class or series of stock, including a class or series of preferred stock, that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of us. These actions may be taken without stockholder approval unless such approval is required by applicable law, the terms of any class or series of our stock other than our common stock or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which any of our stock is listed or traded. We believe that the power of our board of directors to increase or decrease the number of authorized shares of stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of our common stock or preferred stock and thereafter to cause us to issue such shares of stock will provide us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs which might arise.
Our charter and bylaws also provide that the number of directors may be established only by our board of directors, which prevents our stockholders from increasing the number of our directors and filling any vacancies created by such increase with their own nominees. The provisions of our bylaws discussed under the captions “—Meetings of Stockholders” and “—Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business” require stockholders seeking to call a special meeting, nominate an individual for election as a director or propose other business at an annual or special meeting to comply with certain notice and information requirements. We believe
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that these provisions will help to assure the continuity and stability of our business strategies and policies as determined by our board of directors and promote good corporate governance by providing us with clear procedures for calling special meetings and provide our stockholders with information about a stockholder proponent’s interest in us and adequate time to consider stockholder nominees and other business proposals. However, these provisions, alone or in combination, could make it more difficult for our stockholders to remove incumbent directors or fill vacancies on our board of directors with their own nominees and could delay, defer or prevent a change in control, including a proxy contest or tender offer that might involve a premium price for our common stockholders or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders.
Exclusive Forum
Our bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland, or, if that court does not have jurisdiction, the United States District Court for the District of Maryland, Baltimore Division, will be the sole and exclusive forum for (a) any Internal Corporate Claim, as such term is defined in the MGCL, (b) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (c) any action asserting a claim of breach of any duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or to our stockholders, (d) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors, officers or other employees arising pursuant to any provision of the MGCL or our charter or bylaws or (e) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors, officers or other employees that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine.
Limitation of Liability and Indemnification of Directors and Officers
Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision eliminating the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or active and deliberate dishonesty that is established by a final judgment and is material to the cause of action. Our charter contains such a provision that eliminates such liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.
The MGCL requires a Maryland corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made or threatened to be made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to or in which they may be made or are threatened to be made a party or witness by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:
the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and the action was committed in bad faith or was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;
the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or
in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.
In addition, under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify a director or officer for an adverse judgment in a suit by or on behalf of the corporation or if the director or officer was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, unless, in either case, a court orders indemnification and then only for expenses. A court may order indemnification for expenses if it determines that the director or officer is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnification, even though the director or officer did not meet the prescribed standard of conduct or was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received.
In addition, the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon the corporation’s receipt of:
a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation; and
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a written undertaking, which may be unsecured, by the director or officer or on his or her behalf to repay the amount paid if it shall ultimately be determined that the standard of conduct was not met.
Our charter obligates us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to indemnify and to pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding without requiring a preliminary determination of the director’s or officer’s ultimate entitlement to indemnification to:
any present or former director or officer who is made or threatened to be made a party to, or witness in, a proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity; or
any individual who, while a director or officer of us and at our request, serves or has served as a director, officer, partner, member, manager, trustee, employee or agent of another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or any other enterprise and who is made or threatened to be made a party to, or witness in, the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity.
Our charter also permits us, with the approval of our board of directors, to indemnify and advance expenses to any person who served a predecessor of ours in any of the capacities described above and to any employee or agent of our company or a predecessor of our company.
REIT Qualification
Our charter provides that our board of directors may revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without approval of our stockholders if it determines that it is no longer in our best interest to attempt to, or continue to, qualify as a REIT.
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FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS
The following is a summary of the material United States federal income tax consequences of an investment in the common stock, preferred stock and depositary shares (together with common stock and preferred stock, the “stock”) of or debt securities issued by Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc. or debt securities issued by our operating partnership (together with our debt securities, the “debt securities”). Supplemental U.S. federal income tax considerations relevant to the ownership of the other securities offered by this prospectus may be provided in the prospectus supplement that relates to those securities. For purposes of this section under the heading “Federal Income Tax Considerations,” references to “Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc.,” “we,” “our” and “us” mean only Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc. and not its subsidiaries or other lower-tier entities, except as otherwise indicated. This summary is based upon the Code, the regulations promulgated by the U.S. Treasury Department, or Treasury Regulations, rulings and other administrative pronouncements issued by the IRS, and judicial decisions, all as currently in effect, and all of which are subject to differing interpretations or to change, possibly with retroactive effect. We have not sought and will not seek an advance ruling from the IRS regarding any matter discussed in this prospectus and the statements in this prospectus are not binding on the IRS or any court. Thus, no assurance can be given that the IRS would not assert, or that a court would not sustain a position contrary to any of the tax consequences described below. This summary is for general information only and is not tax advice. It does not purport to discuss all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation that may be important to a particular investor in light of its investment or tax circumstances, or to investors subject to special tax rules, such as:
financial institutions;
insurance companies;
subchapter S corporations;
U.S. expatriates;
broker-dealers;
persons who mark-to-market our stock or debt securities or our operating partnership’s debt securities;
regulated investment companies;
REITs;
partnerships and trusts;
persons who hold our stock or debt securities or our operating partnership’s debt securities on behalf of other persons as nominees;
persons who receive our stock through the exercise of employee stock options or otherwise as compensation;
persons subject to the alternative minimum tax provisions of the Code;
persons holding 10% or more (by vote or value) beneficial interest in Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc.;
persons holding our stock or debt securities or our operating partnership’s debt securities as part of a “straddle,” “hedge,” “conversion transaction,” “synthetic security” or other integrated investment;
stockholders subject to special tax accounting rules as a result of their use of “applicable financial statements” (within the meaning of Section 451(b)(3) of the Code);
except to the extent discussed below, tax-exempt organizations and foreign investors.
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This summary assumes that investors will hold their stock or debt securities as a capital asset within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code, which generally means property held for investment. In addition, this summary does not address state, local and foreign tax considerations, or taxes other than U.S. federal income taxes (except where specifically noted).
The federal income tax treatment of holders of our stock or debt securities or our operating partnership’s debt securities depends in some instances on determinations of fact and interpretations of complex provisions of U.S. federal income tax law for which no clear precedent or authority may be available. In addition, the tax consequences to any particular holder of holding our stock or debt securities or our operating partnership’s debt securities will depend on the holder’s particular tax circumstances. You are urged to consult your tax advisor regarding the federal, state, local and foreign income and other tax consequences to you in light of your particular investment or tax circumstances of acquiring, holding, exchanging, or otherwise disposing of our stock or debt securities or our operating partnership’s debt securities.
You are urged to consult your tax advisors regarding the tax consequences to you of:
the purchase, ownership or disposition of our stock or debt securities or our operating partnership’s debt securities, including the federal, state, local, non-U.S. and other tax consequences;
our tax treatment as a REIT for federal income tax purposes; and
potential changes in applicable tax laws.
Taxation of Our Company
General
We elected to be taxed as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Code commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2018. We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Code commencing with such taxable year, and we intend to continue to be organized and operate in this manner. However, qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, including through actual annual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that we have been organized and have operated, or will continue to be organized and operate, in a manner so as to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT. See “—Failure to Qualify.”
Sidley Austin LLP has acted as our tax counsel in connection with this offering of our stock, our debt securities, our operating partnership’s debt securities and our federal income tax status as a REIT. Sidley Austin LLP has rendered an opinion to us to the effect that, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2018, we have been organized and have operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code, and our proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code. It must be emphasized that this opinion was based on various assumptions and representations as to factual matters, including representations made by us in a factual certificate provided by one or more of our officers. In addition, this opinion was based upon our factual representations set forth in this prospectus. Moreover, our qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, which are discussed below, including through actual annual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership, the results of which have not been and will not be reviewed by Sidley Austin LLP. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that our actual results of operations for any particular taxable year will satisfy those requirements. Further, the anticipated federal income tax treatment described in this discussion may be changed, perhaps retroactively, by legislative, administrative or judicial action at any time. Sidley Austin LLP has no obligation to update its opinion subsequent to the date of such opinion.
Provided we continue to qualify for taxation as a REIT, we generally will not be required to pay federal corporate income taxes on our REIT taxable income that is currently distributed to our stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” that ordinarily results from investment in a C corporation. A C
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corporation is a corporation that generally is required to pay tax at the corporate level. Double taxation means taxation once at the corporate level when income is earned and once again at the stockholder level when the income is distributed. We will, however, be required to pay federal income tax as follows:
First, we will be required to pay tax at the corporate rate on any undistributed REIT taxable income, including undistributed net capital gains.
Second, if we have (1) net income from the sale or other disposition of “foreclosure property” held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business or (2) other nonqualifying income from foreclosure property, we will be required to pay tax at the corporate rate on this income. To the extent that income from foreclosure property is otherwise qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, this tax is not applicable. Subject to certain other requirements, foreclosure property generally is defined as property we acquired through foreclosure or after a default on a loan secured by the property or a lease of the property.
Third, we will be required to pay a 100% tax on any net income from prohibited transactions. Prohibited transactions are, in general, sales or other taxable dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business.
Fourth, if we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as described below, but have otherwise maintained our qualification as a REIT because certain other requirements are met, we will be required to pay a tax equal to (1) the greater of (A) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test and (B) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 95% gross income test, multiplied by (2) a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.
Fifth, if we fail to satisfy any of the asset tests (other than a de minimis failure of the 5% or 10% asset test), as described below, due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, and we nonetheless maintain our REIT qualification because of specified cure provisions, we will be required to pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the corporate tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets that caused us to fail such test.
Sixth, if we fail to satisfy any provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT (other than a violation of the gross income tests or certain violations of the asset tests, as described below) and the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, we may retain our REIT qualification but we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.
Seventh, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (1) 85% of our ordinary income for the year, (2) 95% of our capital gain net income for the year, and (3) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods.
Eighth, if we acquire any asset from a corporation that is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which our initial tax basis in the asset is less than the fair market value of the asset on the date on which we acquired the asset, and we subsequently recognize gain on the disposition of the asset during the five-year period beginning on the date on which we acquired the asset, then we will be required to pay tax at the corporate tax rate on this gain to the extent of the excess of (1) the fair market value of the asset over (2) our adjusted tax basis in the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset. The results described in this paragraph with respect to the recognition of gain assume that the C corporation will refrain from making an election to receive different treatment under applicable Treasury Regulations on its tax return for the year in which we acquire the asset from the C corporation. Under applicable Treasury Regulations, any gain from the sale of real property we acquired in an exchange under Section 1031 (a like-kind exchange) or Section 1033 (an involuntary conversion) of the Code generally is excluded from the application of this built-in gains tax. See “—Built-In Gains Tax.”
Ninth, our subsidiaries that are C corporations, including our “taxable REIT subsidiaries,” or TRSs, generally will be required to pay federal corporate income tax on their earnings.
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Tenth, we will be required to pay a 100% tax on any “redetermined rents,” “redetermined deductions,” “excess interest” or “redetermined TRS service income.” See “—Income Tests” and “—Penalty Tax.” In general, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of services furnished to any of our tenants by a TRS of ours. Redetermined deductions and excess interest generally represent amounts that are deducted by a TRS of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations. Redetermined TRS service income generally represents income of a TRS that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf.
Eleventh, we may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net capital gain. In that case, a stockholder would include its proportionate share of our undistributed net capital gain (to the extent we make a timely designation of such gain to the stockholder) in its income, would be deemed to have paid the tax that we paid on such gain, and would be allowed a credit for its proportionate share of the tax deemed to have been paid, and an adjustment would be made to increase the basis of the stockholder in our stock.
Twelfth, we may be required to pay monetary penalties to the IRS in certain circumstances, including if we fail to meet record-keeping requirements intended to monitor its compliance with rules relating to the composition of our stockholders, as described below under “—Requirements for Qualification as a REIT.”
Requirements for Qualification as a REIT
The Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:
that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;
that issues transferable shares or transferable certificates to evidence its beneficial ownership;
that would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for the special provisions under the Code and Treasury Regulations applicable to REITs;
that is not a financial institution or an insurance company within the meaning of the Code;
that is beneficially owned by 100 or more persons;
not more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock which is owned, actually or constructively, by five or fewer individuals, including certain specified entities, during the last half of each taxable year;
that makes an election to be taxed as a REIT, or has made such an election for a previous taxable year which has not been revoked or terminated; and
that meets other tests described below, regarding the nature of its income and assets and the amount of its distributions.
The Code provides that the first through fourth conditions above, inclusive, must be met during the entire taxable year and that the fifth condition must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months. The fifth and sixth conditions do not apply until after the first taxable year for which an election is made to be taxed as a REIT. For purposes of the sixth condition, the term “individual” includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefit plan, a private foundation or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes, but generally does not include a qualified pension plan or profit sharing trust.
We believe that we have been organized, have operated and have issued sufficient shares of stock with sufficient diversity of ownership to allow us to satisfy the conditions listed above, during the relevant time periods. In addition, our charter provides for restrictions regarding ownership and transfer of our shares which are intended to assist us in continuing to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in the fifth and sixth bullet points above. A description of the share ownership and transfer restrictions relating to our stock is contained in the discussion in this prospectus under the heading “Description of Our Capital Stock—Restrictions on Ownership and
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Transfer.” These restrictions, however, do not ensure that we have previously satisfied, and may not ensure that we will, in all cases, be able to continue to satisfy, the share ownership requirements described in the fifth and sixth bullet points listed above. If we fail to satisfy these share ownership requirements, except as provided in the next sentence, our status as a REIT will terminate. If, however, we comply with the rules contained in applicable Treasury Regulations that require us to ascertain the actual ownership of our shares and we do not know, or would not have known through the exercise of reasonable diligence, that we failed to meet the requirement described in the sixth bullet point above, we will be treated as having met this requirement. See “—Failure to Qualify.”
In addition, we may not maintain our status as a REIT unless our taxable year is the calendar year. We have and will continue to have a calendar taxable year.
Ownership of Interests in Partnerships, Limited Liability Companies and Qualified REIT Subsidiaries
In the case of a REIT that is a partner in a partnership or a member in a limited liability company treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes, Treasury Regulations provide that the REIT will be deemed to own its proportionate share of the assets of the partnership or limited liability company, as the case may be, based on its interest in partnership capital, subject to special rules relating to the 10% asset test described below. Also, the REIT will be deemed to be entitled to its proportionate share of the income of that entity. The assets and gross income of the partnership or limited liability company retain the same character in the hands of the REIT for purposes of Section 856 of the Code, including satisfying the gross income tests and the asset tests. Thus, our pro rata share of the assets and items of income of any partnership or limited liability company treated as a partnership or disregarded entity for federal income tax purposes, including such partnership’s or limited liability company’s share of these items of any partnership or limited liability company treated as a partnership or disregarded entity for federal income tax purposes in which it owns an interest, would be treated as our assets and items of income for purposes of applying the requirements described in this discussion, including the gross income and asset tests described below. A brief summary of the rules governing the federal income taxation of partnerships and limited liability companies is set forth below in “—Tax Aspects of Our Operating Partnership, the Subsidiary Partnerships and the Limited Liability Companies.”
We have control of our operating partnership and the subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies and have operated, and intend to continue, to operate them in a manner consistent with the requirements for our qualification as a REIT. If we become a limited partner or non-managing member in any partnership or limited liability company and such entity takes or expects to take actions that could jeopardize our status as a REIT or require us to pay tax, we may be forced to dispose of our interest in such entity. In addition, it is possible that a partnership or limited liability company could take an action which could cause us to fail a gross income or asset test, and that we would not become aware of such action in time to dispose of our interest in the partnership or limited liability company or take other corrective action on a timely basis. In that case, we could fail to qualify as a REIT unless we were entitled to relief, as described below.
We may from time to time own and operate certain properties through subsidiaries that we intend to be treated as “qualified REIT subsidiaries” under the Code. A corporation will qualify as our qualified REIT subsidiary if we own 100% of the corporation’s outstanding stock and do not elect with the subsidiary to treat it as a TRS, as described below. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not treated as a separate corporation, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of a qualified REIT subsidiary are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the parent REIT for all purposes under the Code, including all REIT qualification tests. Thus, in applying the federal tax requirements described herein, any qualified REIT subsidiaries we own are ignored, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of such corporations are treated as our assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not subject to federal income tax, and our ownership of the stock of a qualified REIT subsidiary will not violate the restrictions on ownership of securities, as described below under “—Asset Tests.”
Ownership of Interests in TRSs
We, through our operating partnership, own interests in companies that have elected, together with us, to be treated as our TRSs, and we may acquire securities in additional TRSs in the future. A TRS is a corporation (or other
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entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes), other than a REIT, in which a REIT directly or indirectly holds stock, and that has made a joint election with such REIT to be treated as TRS. If a TRS owns more than 35% of the total voting power or value of the outstanding securities of another corporation, such other corporation will also be treated as a TRS. Other than some activities relating to lodging and health care facilities, a TRS may generally engage in any business, including the provision of customary or non-customary services to tenants of its parent REIT. A TRS is subject to federal income tax as a regular C corporation. A REIT’s ownership of securities of a TRS is not subject to the 5% or 10% asset test described below. See “—Asset Tests.” The aggregate value of all securities of any TRS held by us may not exceed 20% of the value of our total assets. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, taxpayers are subject to a limitation on their ability to deduct net business interest generally equal to 30% of adjusted taxable income, subject to certain exceptions. See “—Annual Distribution Requirements.” While not certain, this provision may limit the ability of our TRS to deduct interest, which could increase its taxable income.
Income Tests
We must satisfy two gross income requirements annually to maintain our qualification as a REIT. First, in each taxable year we must derive directly or indirectly at least 75% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions, and certain foreign currency gains) from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property, including “rents from real property,” interest on obligations adequately secured by mortgages on real property, and certain types of temporary investments. Second, in each taxable year we must derive at least 95% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions and certain foreign currency gains) from the real property investments described above or dividends, interest and gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, or any combination of the foregoing. For these purposes, the term “interest” generally does not include any amount received or accrued, directly or indirectly, if the determination of all or some of the amount depends in any way on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount received or accrued generally will not be excluded from the term “interest” solely by reason of being based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales.
Rents we receive from a tenant will qualify as “rents from real property” for the purpose of satisfying the gross income requirements for a REIT described above only if all of the following conditions are met:
The amount of rent is not based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, as described above, an amount we receive or accrue generally will not be excluded from the term “rents from real property” solely because it is based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales;
Neither we nor an actual or constructive owner of 10% or more of our stock actually or constructively owns 10% or more of the interests in the assets or net profits of a non-corporate tenant, or, if the tenant is a corporation, 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or 10% or more of the total value of all classes of stock of the tenant. Rents we receive from such a tenant that is a TRS of ours, however, will not be excluded from the definition of “rents from real property” as a result of this condition if at least 90% of the space at the property to which the rents relate is leased to third parties, and the rents paid by the TRS are substantially comparable to rents paid by our other tenants for comparable space. Whether rents paid by a TRS are substantially comparable to rents paid by other tenants is determined at the time the lease with the TRS is entered into, extended and modified, if such modification increases the rents due under such lease. Notwithstanding the foregoing, however, if a lease with a “controlled TRS” is modified and such modification results in an increase in the rents payable by such TRS, any such increase will not qualify as “rents from real property.” For purposes of this rule, a “controlled TRS” is a TRS in which the parent REIT owns stock possessing more than 50% of the voting power or more than 50% of the total value of the outstanding stock of such TRS;
Rent attributable to personal property, leased in connection with a lease of real property, is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease. If this condition is not met, then the portion of the rent attributable to personal property will not qualify as “rents from real property”. To the extent that rent attributable to personal property, leased in connection with a lease of real property, exceeds 15% of the total rent received under the lease, we may transfer a portion of such personal property to a TRS; and
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We generally do not operate or manage the property or furnish or render services to our tenants, subject to a 1% de minimis exception (for purposes of such exception, the gross income received from such non-customary services is deemed to be at least 150% of the direct cost of providing the services) and except as provided below. We are permitted, however, to perform directly certain services that are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not otherwise considered “rendered to the occupant” of the property. Examples of these permitted services include the provision of light, heat, or other utilities, trash removal and general maintenance of common areas. In addition, we are permitted to employ an independent contractor from whom we derive no revenue to provide customary services to our tenants, or a TRS (which may be wholly or partially owned by us) to provide both customary and non-customary services to our tenants, without causing the rent we receive from those tenants to fail to qualify as “rents from real property.” Any amounts we receive from a TRS with respect to the TRS’s provision of non-customary services will, however, be nonqualifying income under the 75% gross income test and, except to the extent received through the payment of dividends, the 95% gross income test.
We generally do not intend, and as the sole owner of the general partner of our operating partnership, do not intend to permit our operating partnership, to take actions we believe will cause us to fail to satisfy the rental conditions described above. However, we may intentionally fail to satisfy some of these conditions to the extent we determine, based on the advice of our tax counsel, that the failure will not jeopardize our tax status as a REIT. In addition, with respect to the limitation on the rental of personal property, we have not appraised the relative values of the real property and personal property leased to tenants. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with our determinations of value of such property.
We have entered into and may enter into additional hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Our hedging activities may include entering into interest rate swaps, caps, and floors, options to purchase these items, and futures and forward contracts. Except to the extent provided by Treasury Regulations, any income from the following hedging transactions, each of which is clearly identified as such before the close of the day on which it was acquired, originated, or entered into, will not constitute gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income test:
a hedging transaction we enter into
(1) in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of interest rate or price changes or currency fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made, or ordinary obligations incurred or to be incurred, to acquire or carry real estate assets, which we clearly identify as specified in Treasury Regulations before the close of the day on which it was acquired, originated, or entered into, including gain from the sale or disposition of such a transaction, or
(2) primarily to manage risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain that would be qualifying income under the 75% or 95% income tests and
new hedging transactions we enter into to hedge the income or loss from prior hedging transactions, where the property or indebtedness which was the subject of the prior hedging transaction was extinguished or disposed of.
To the extent that we do not properly identify such transactions as hedges or we enter into other types of hedging transactions, the income from those transactions is likely to be treated as non-qualifying income for purposes of both of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our status as a REIT.
To the extent our TRSs make distributions, we generally will derive our allocable share of such distribution through our interest in our operating partnership. Such distributions will be classified as dividend income to the extent of the earnings and profits of the distributing corporation. Such distributions will generally constitute qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not for purposes of the 75% gross income test.
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We monitor the amount of the dividend and other income from our TRSs and will take actions intended to keep this income, and any other nonqualifying income, within the limitations of the gross income tests. Although we expect these actions will be sufficient to prevent a violation of the gross income tests, we cannot guarantee that such actions will in all cases prevent such a violation.
If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may nevertheless qualify as a REIT for the year if we are entitled to relief under certain provisions of the Code. We generally may make use of the relief provisions if:
following our identification of the failure to meet the 75% or 95% gross income test for any taxable year, we file a schedule with the IRS setting forth each item of our gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income test for such taxable year in accordance with Treasury regulations to be issued; and
our failure to meet these tests was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect.
It is not possible, however, to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions. For example, if we fail to satisfy the gross income tests because nonqualifying income that we intentionally accrue or receive exceeds the limits on nonqualifying income, the IRS could conclude that our failure to satisfy the tests was not due to reasonable cause. If these relief provisions do not apply to a particular set of circumstances, we will not qualify as a REIT. As discussed above in “—Taxation of Our Company— General,” even if these relief provisions apply, and we retain our status as a REIT, a tax would be imposed with respect to our nonqualifying income.
We may not always be able to comply with the gross income tests for REIT qualification despite periodic monitoring of our income.
Prohibited Transaction Income
Any gain that we realize on the sale of property held as inventory or otherwise held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, including our share of any such gain realized by our operating partnership, either directly or through its subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies, will be treated as income from a prohibited transaction that is subject to a 100% penalty tax, unless certain safe harbor exceptions apply. This prohibited transaction income may also adversely affect our ability to satisfy the gross income tests for qualification as a REIT. Under existing law, whether property is held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business is a question of fact that depends on all the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction. As the sole owner of the general partner of our operating partnership, we intend to cause our operating partnership to hold its properties for investment with a view to long-term appreciation, to engage in the business of acquiring and owning its properties and to make occasional sales of the properties as are consistent with our investment objective. We do not intend, and do not intend to permit our operating partnership or its subsidiary partnerships or limited liability companies, to enter into any sales that are prohibited transactions. However, the IRS may successfully contend that some or all of the sales made by our operating partnership or its subsidiary partnerships or limited liability companies are prohibited transactions. We would be required to pay the 100% penalty tax on our allocable share of the gains resulting from any such sales. The 100% penalty tax will not apply to gains from the sale of assets that are held through a TRS, but such income will be subject to tax at regular U.S. federal corporate income tax rates.
Penalty Tax
Any redetermined rents, redetermined deductions, excess interest or redetermined TRS service income we generate will be subject to a 100% penalty tax. In general, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of any services furnished to any of our tenants by a TRS of ours, redetermined deductions and excess interest represent any amounts that are deducted by a TRS of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations, and redetermined TRS service income is income of a TRS that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf. Rents we receive will not constitute redetermined rents if they qualify for certain safe harbor provisions contained in the Code.
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We do not believe we have been, and do not expect to be, subject to this penalty tax, although any rental or service arrangements we enter into from time to time may not satisfy the safe-harbor provisions described above. We intend to set any fees paid to a TRS for such services, and any rent payable to us by a TRS, at arm’s length rates, although the amounts paid may not satisfy the safe-harbor provisions described above. These determinations are inherently factual, and the IRS has broad discretion to assert that amounts paid between related parties should be reallocated to clearly reflect their respective incomes. If the IRS successfully made such an assertion, we would be required to pay a 100% penalty tax on the excess of an arm’s length fee for tenant services over the amount actually paid, or on the excess rents paid to us.
Asset Tests
At the close of each calendar quarter, we must also satisfy certain tests relating to the nature and diversification of our assets:
At least 75% of the value of our total assets must be represented by real estate assets, cash, cash items and U.S. government securities. For this purpose, real estate assets include interests in real property, such as land, buildings, leasehold interests in real property, stock (or transferable certificates of beneficial interest) in other REITs, any stock or debt instrument attributable to the investment of the proceeds of a stock offering or a public offering of debt with a term of at least five years, but only for the one-year period beginning on the date we receive such proceeds, certain kinds of mortgage-backed securities and mortgage loans as well as personal property to the extent that rents attributable to such personal property are treated as rents from real property for purposes of the gross income tests described above (i.e., such rent for personal property does not exceed 15% of the total rent for personal and real property). Assets that do not qualify for purposes of the 75% test are subject to the additional asset tests described below.
The aggregate value of all securities of any TRSs held by us may not exceed 20% of the value of our total assets. As long as each of these companies qualifies as a TRS of ours, we will not be subject to the 5% asset test, the 10% voting securities limitation or the 10% value limitation with respect to our ownership of the securities of such companies. We believe that the aggregate value of any TRSs in which we may own an interest will not exceed 20% of the aggregate value of our gross assets. We generally do not obtain independent appraisals to support these conclusions. In addition, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with our determinations of value.
Not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by debt instruments of publicly offered REITs to the extent those debt instruments are not otherwise secured by real property.
Of the investments included in the 25% asset class, and except for certain investments in other REITs, our qualified REIT subsidiaries and TRSs, the value of any one issuer’s securities may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets, and we may not own more than 10% of the total vote or value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer except, in the case of the 10% value test, securities satisfying the “straight debt” safe-harbor or securities issued by a partnership that itself would satisfy the 75% income test if it were a REIT. Certain types of securities we may own are disregarded as securities solely for purposes of the 10% value test, including, but not limited to, any loan to an individual or an estate, any obligation to pay rents from real property and any security issued by a REIT. In addition, solely for purposes of the 10% value test, the determination of our interest in the assets of a partnership or limited liability company in which we own an interest will be based on our proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership or limited liability company, excluding for this purpose certain securities described in the Code.
The asset tests must be satisfied at the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year in which we (directly or through any partnership, qualified REIT subsidiary or limited liability company) acquire securities in the applicable issuer, and also at the close of each calendar quarter in which we increase our ownership of securities of such issuer (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership, qualified REIT subsidiary or limited liability company that owns such securities). For example, our indirect ownership, through our operating partnership, of securities of each issuer will increase as a result of our capital contributions to our operating partnership or as limited partners exercise any redemption/exchange rights. Accordingly, after initially meeting the asset tests at the
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close of any quarter, we will not lose our status as a REIT for failure to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a later quarter solely by reason of changes in asset values. If we fail to satisfy an asset test because we acquire securities or other property during a quarter (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership or limited liability company that owns such securities), we may cure this failure by disposing of sufficient nonqualifying assets within 30 days after the close of that quarter. We have maintained and intend to continue to maintain adequate records of the value of our assets to ensure compliance with the asset tests. If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests within the 30-day cure period, we would cease to qualify as a REIT unless we are eligible for certain relief provisions discussed below.
Certain relief provisions may be available to us if we discover a failure to satisfy the asset tests described above after the 30-day cure period. Under these provisions, we will be deemed to have met the 5% and 10% asset tests if the value of our nonqualifying assets:
Does not exceed the lesser of:
1% of the total value of our assets at the end of the applicable quarter or
$10,000,000, and
we dispose of the nonqualifying assets or otherwise satisfy such tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued. For violations of any of the asset tests due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and that are, in the case of the 5% and 10% asset tests, in excess of the de minimis exception described above, we may avoid disqualification as a REIT after the 30-day cure period by taking steps including:
the disposition of sufficient nonqualifying assets, or the taking of other actions, which allow us to meet the asset tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued.
Paying a tax equal to the greater or:
$50,000 or
The corporate tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets, and:
Disclosing certain information to the IRS.
Although we believe we have satisfied the asset tests described above and plan to take steps to ensure that we satisfy such tests for any quarter with respect to which retesting is to occur, there can be no assurance that we will always be successful, or will not require a reduction in our overall interest in an issuer (including in a TRS). If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests in a timely manner, and the relief provisions described above are not available, we would cease to qualify as a REIT.
Annual Distribution Requirements
To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we are required to distribute dividends, other than capital gain dividends, to our stockholders in an amount at least equal to the sum of:
90% of our REIT taxable income; and
90% of our after-tax net income, if any, from foreclosure property; minus
The excess of the certain items of non-cash income over a specified percentage of our income.
For these purposes, our “REIT taxable income” is computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain. In addition, for purposes of this test, non-cash income means income attributable to leveled
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stepped rents, original issue discount on purchase money debt, cancellation of indebtedness, or a like- kind exchange that is later determined to be taxable.
In addition, if we acquired any asset from a corporation which was or had been a C corporation in a transaction in which our initial tax basis in the asset was less than the fair market value of the asset on the acquisition date, and we dispose of the asset within the five-year period following such acquisition, our REIT taxable income will be reduced by any taxes that we are required to pay on any gain we recognize from the disposition. See “—Built-In Gains Tax.”
Our deduction for net business interest expense will generally be limited to 30% of our taxable income, as adjusted for certain items of income, gain, deduction or loss. Any business interest deduction that is disallowed due to this limitation may be carried forward to future taxable years. If we are subject to this interest expense limitation, our REIT taxable income for a taxable year may be increased. Taxpayers that conduct certain real estate businesses may elect not to have this interest expense limitation apply to them, provided that they use an alternative depreciation system to depreciate certain property. We believe that we are eligible to make this election. If we make this election, although we would not be subject to the interest expense limitation described above, our depreciation deductions may be reduced and, as a result, our REIT taxable income for a taxable year may be increased.
We generally must pay, or be treated as paying, the distributions described above in the taxable year to which they relate. At our election, a distribution will be treated as paid in a taxable year if it is declared before we timely file our tax return for such year and paid on or before the first regular dividend payment after such declaration, provided such payment is made during the 12-month period following the close of such year. These distributions are treated as received by our stockholders in the year in which paid. This is so even though these distributions relate to the prior year for purposes of the 90% distribution requirement. In order to be taken into account for purposes of our distribution requirement, except as provided below, the amount distributed must not be preferential—i.e., every stockholder of the class of stock to which a distribution is made must be treated the same as every other stockholder of that class, and no class of stock may be treated other than according to its dividend rights as a class. This preferential limitation will not apply to distributions made by us, provided we qualify as a “publicly offered REIT.” We believe that we are and expect we will continue to be, a publicly offered REIT. To the extent that we do not distribute all of our net capital gain, or distribute at least 90%, but less than 100%, of our “REIT taxable income,” as adjusted, we will be required to pay tax on the undistributed amount at the corporate tax rate. In addition, we may elect to retain, rather than distribute, our net long-term capital gains and pay tax on such gains. In this case, we would elect to have our stockholders include their proportionate share of such undistributed long-term capital gains in their income and receive a corresponding credit for their proportionate share of the tax paid by us. Our stockholders would then increase their adjusted basis in our stock by the difference between the designated amounts included in their long-term capital gains and the tax deemed paid with respect to their proportionate shares. We believe we have made, and we intend to continue to make, timely distributions sufficient to satisfy these annual distribution requirements and to minimize our corporate tax obligations. In this regard, the partnership agreement of our operating partnership authorizes us, as the sole owner of the general partner of our operating partnership, to take such steps as may be necessary to cause our operating partnership to distribute to its partners an amount sufficient to permit us to meet these distribution requirements and to minimize our corporate tax obligation.
We expect that our REIT taxable income will be less than our cash flow because of depreciation and other non-cash charges included in computing REIT taxable income. Accordingly, we anticipate that we generally will have sufficient cash or liquid assets to enable us to satisfy the distribution requirements described above. However, from time to time, we may not have sufficient cash or other liquid assets to meet these distribution requirements due to timing differences between the actual receipt of income and actual payment of deductible expenses, and the inclusion of income and deduction of expenses in determining our taxable income. In addition, we may decide to retain our cash, rather than distribute it, in order to repay debt or for other reasons. If these timing differences occur, we may borrow funds to pay dividends or pay dividends in the form of taxable stock dividends in order to meet the distribution requirements, while preserving our cash.
Under certain circumstances, we may be able to rectify an inadvertent failure to meet the 90% distribution requirement for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to our stockholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. Thus, we may be able to avoid being taxed on amounts
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distributed as deficiency dividends, subject to the 4% excise tax described below. However, we will be required to pay interest to the IRS based upon the amount of any deduction claimed for deficiency dividends. While the payment of a deficiency dividend will apply to a prior year for purposes of our REIT distribution requirements, it will be treated as an additional distribution to our stockholders in the year such dividend is paid.
Furthermore, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of 85% of our ordinary income for such year, 95% of our capital gain net income for the year and any undistributed taxable income from prior periods. Any ordinary income and net capital gain on which U.S. federal corporate income tax is imposed for any year is treated as an amount distributed during that year for purposes of calculating this excise tax.
For purposes of the 90% distribution requirement and excise tax described above, dividends declared during the last three months of the taxable year, payable to stockholders of record on a specified date during such period and paid during January of the following year, will be treated as paid by us and received by our stockholders on December 31 of the year in which they are declared.
Like-Kind Exchanges
We may dispose of real property that is not held primarily for sale in transactions intended to qualify as like- kind exchanges under the Code. Such like-kind exchanges are intended to result in the deferral of gain for federal income tax purposes. The failure of any such transaction to qualify as a like-kind exchange could require us to pay federal income tax, possibly including the 100% prohibited transaction tax, depending on the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction.
Failure to Qualify
If we discover a violation of a provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT, certain specified cure provisions may be available to us. Except with respect to violations of the gross income tests and asset tests (for which the cure provisions are described above), and provided the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, these cure provisions generally impose a $50,000 penalty for each violation in lieu of a loss of REIT status. If we fail to satisfy the requirements for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year, and the relief provisions do not apply, we will be required to pay tax on our taxable income at the corporate rate. Distributions to stockholders in any year in which we fail to qualify as a REIT will not be deductible by us. As a result, we anticipate that our failure to qualify as a REIT would reduce the cash available for distribution by us to our stockholders. In addition, if we fail to qualify as a REIT, we will not be required to distribute any amounts to our stockholders and all distributions to stockholders will be taxable as regular corporate dividends to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. In such event, corporate distributees may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction. In addition, non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, may be eligible for the preferential tax rates on qualified dividend income. Non-corporate U.S. stockholders, including individuals, generally may deduct 20% of dividends from a REIT, other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income, for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2026. If we fail to qualify as a REIT, such stockholders may not claim this deduction with respect to dividends paid by us. Unless entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we would also be ineligible to elect to be treated as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year for which we lose our qualification. It is not possible to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to this statutory relief.
Tax Aspects of Our Operating Partnership, the Subsidiary Partnerships and the Limited Liability Companies
General
All of our investments are held indirectly through our operating partnership. We are the sole owner of the general partner of our operating partnership. Such general partner entity is treated as a disregarded entity for federal income tax purposes. Our operating partnership is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and we are treated as owning our proportionate share of the items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of our operating partnership for such purposes. In addition, our operating partnership holds certain of its investments indirectly through subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies that we believe are treated as disregarded
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entities for federal income tax purposes. In the future, we may hold investments through entities treated as partnerships for federal income tax purposes. In general, entities that are treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for federal income tax purposes are “pass-through” entities which are not required to pay federal income tax. Rather, partners or members of such entities are allocated their shares of the items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the partnership or limited liability company, and are potentially required to pay tax on this income, without regard to whether they receive a distribution from the partnership or limited liability company. We will include in our income our share of these partnership and limited liability company items for purposes of the various gross income tests, the computation of our REIT taxable income, and the REIT distribution requirements. Moreover, for purposes of the asset tests, we will include our pro rata share of assets held by our operating partnership, including its share of its subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies, based on our capital interests in each such entity. See “—Taxation of Our Company.”
Entity Classification
Our interests in our operating partnership and the subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies involve special tax considerations, including the possibility that the IRS might challenge the status of these entities as disregarded entities or partnerships. For example, an entity that would otherwise be treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes may nonetheless be taxable as a corporation if it is a “publicly traded partnership” and certain other requirements are met. A partnership or limited liability company would be treated as a publicly traded partnership if its interests are traded on an established securities market or are readily tradable on a secondary market or a substantial equivalent thereof, within the meaning of applicable Treasury Regulations. We do not anticipate that our operating partnership or any subsidiary partnership or limited liability company will be treated as a publicly traded partnership that is taxable as a corporation. However, if any such entity were treated as a corporation, it would be required to pay an entity-level tax on its income. In this situation, the character of our assets and items of gross income would change and could prevent us from satisfying the REIT asset tests and possibly the REIT income tests. See “—Taxation of Our Company—Asset Tests” and “—Income Tests.” This, in turn, could prevent us from qualifying as a REIT. See “—Failure to Qualify” for a discussion of the effect of our failure to meet these tests. In addition, a change in the tax status of our operating partnership or a subsidiary partnership or limited liability company might be treated as a taxable event. If so, we might incur a tax liability without any related cash payment. We believe our operating partnership will be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and each of its subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies will be treated as disregarded entities for federal income tax purposes.
Allocations of Income, Gain, Loss and Deduction
A partnership agreement (or, in the case of a limited liability company treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes, the limited liability company agreement) will generally determine the allocation of income and loss among partners. These allocations, however, will be disregarded for tax purposes if they do not comply with the provisions of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder. Generally, Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder require that partnership allocations respect the economic arrangement of the partners. If an allocation of partnership income or loss does not comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder, the item subject to the allocation will be reallocated in accordance with the partners’ interests in the partnership. This reallocation will be determined by taking into account all of the facts and circumstances relating to the economic arrangement of the partners with respect to such item.
Tax Allocations With Respect to the Properties
Under Section 704(c) of the Code, income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to appreciated or depreciated property that is contributed to a partnership (including a limited liability company treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes) in exchange for an interest in the partnership, must be allocated in a manner so that the contributing partner is charged with the unrealized gain or benefits from the unrealized loss associated with the property at the time of the contribution. The amount of the unrealized gain or unrealized loss generally is equal to the difference between the fair market value or book value and the adjusted tax basis of the contributed property at the time of contribution (this difference is referred to as a book-tax difference), as adjusted from time to time. These
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allocations are solely for federal income tax purposes and do not affect the book capital accounts or other economic or legal arrangements among the partners.
Our operating partnership may, from time to time, acquire interests in property in exchange for interests in our operating partnership. In that case, the tax basis of these property interests will generally carry over to our operating partnership, notwithstanding their different book (i.e., fair market) value. The partnership agreement will require that income and loss allocations with respect to these properties be made in a manner consistent with Section 704(c) of the Code. Treasury Regulations issued under Section 704(c) of the Code provide partnerships (including a limited liability company treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes) with a choice of several methods of accounting for book-tax differences. Depending on the method we choose in connection with any particular contribution, the carryover basis of each of the contributed interests in the properties in the hands of our operating partnership:
could cause us to be allocated lower amounts of depreciation deductions for tax purposes than would be allocated to us if any of the contributed properties were to have a tax basis equal to its respective fair market value at the time of the contribution and
could cause us to be allocated taxable gain in the event of a sale of such contributed interests or properties in excess of the economic or book income allocated to us as a result of such sale, with a corresponding benefit to the other partners in our operating partnership.
An allocation described in the second bullet point above might cause us or the other partners to recognize taxable income in excess of cash proceeds in the event of a sale or other disposition of property, which might adversely affect our ability to comply with the REIT distribution requirements. See “—General—Requirements for Qualification as a REIT” and “—Annual Distribution Requirements.” Any property acquired by our operating partnership in a taxable transaction will initially have a tax basis equal to its fair market value, and Section 704(c) of the Code generally will not apply.
Partnership Audit Rules
New rules applicable to U.S. federal income tax audits of partnerships apply to our operating partnership and any entity in which we directly or indirectly invest that is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax consequences. Any audit adjustment to items of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit of a partnership (and any partner’s distributive share thereof) is determined, and taxes, interest, or penalties attributable thereto are assessed and collected, at the partnership level regardless of changes in composition of the partners (or their relative ownership) between the year under audit and the year of the adjustment. The rules also include an elective alternative method under which the additional taxes resulting from the adjustment are assessed from the affected partners, subject to a higher rate of interest than otherwise would apply. The rules could result in partnerships in which we directly or indirectly invest being required to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties as a result of an audit adjustment, and we, as a direct or indirect partner of these partnerships, could be required to bear the economic burden of those taxes, interest, and penalties even though we, as a REIT, may not otherwise have been required to pay additional corporate-level taxes as a result of the related audit adjustment. Although final regulations have been issued, questions remain as to how they will apply. However, these rules could increase the U.S. federal income tax, interest and/or penalties economically borne by us in the event of a U.S. federal income tax audit of a subsidiary partnership in comparison to prior law. Investors are urged to consult their tax advisors with respect to these changes and their potential impact on their investment in our stock.
Built-In Gains Tax
From time to time, we may acquire C corporations in transactions in which the basis of the corporations’ assets in our hands is determined by reference to the basis of the assets in the hands of the acquired corporations, or carry-over basis transactions. In the case of assets we acquire from a C corporation in a carry-over basis transaction, if we dispose of any such asset in a taxable transaction (including by deed in lieu of foreclosure) during the five-year period beginning on the date of the carry-over basis transaction, then we will be required to pay tax at the corporate tax rate on the gain recognized to the extent of the excess of (1) the fair market value of the asset over (2) our adjusted tax basis in the asset, in each case determined as of the date of the carry-over basis transaction. The
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foregoing result with respect to the recognition of gain assumes that the C corporation will refrain from making an election to receive different treatment under applicable Treasury Regulations on its tax return for the year in which we acquire the asset from the C corporation. Any taxes we pay as a result of such gain would reduce the amount available for distribution to our stockholders.
Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences to Holders of Our Stock and Debt Securities and Our Operating Partnership’s Debt Securities
The following is a summary of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences to you of acquiring, owning, and disposing of our stock or debt securities or our operating partnership’s debt securities. As discussed above, this summary assumes that investors will hold their stock or debt securities as a capital asset within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code, which generally means property held for investment. This discussion also assumes that the debt securities will be issued with less than a statutory de minimis amount of original issue discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In addition, this discussion is limited to persons purchasing the debt securities for cash at original issue and at their original “issue price” within the meaning of Section 1273 of the Code (i.e., the first price at which a substantial amount of the debt securities is sold to the public for cash).
For purposes of this discussion, a “U.S. stockholder” or “U.S. holder” is a beneficial owner of our stock or debt securities or our operating partnership’s debt securities that, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, is or is treated as:
a citizen or resident of the United States;
a corporation created or organized in or under the laws of the United States or any political subdivision thereof;
an estate whose income is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source; or
a trust if a United States court can exercise primary supervision over the trust’s administration and one or more United States person are authorized to control all substantial decisions of the trust.
For purposes of this discussion, a “non-U.S. stockholder” or “non-U.S. holder” is a beneficial owner of our stock or debt securities that is not a “U.S. stockholder” or “U.S. holder” and is also not a partnership for U.S. tax purposes.
If a partnership, including for this purpose any entity that is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, holds our stock or debt securities or our operating partnership’s debt securities, the tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will generally depend upon the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. An investor that is a partnership and the partners in such partnership should consult their tax advisors about the U.S. federal income tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our stock or debt securities or our operating partnership’s debt securities.
YOU SHOULD CONSULT YOUR TAX ADVISOR AS TO THE PARTICULAR TAX CONSEQUENCES OF YOUR PURCHASE, OWNERSHIP AND DISPOSITION OF OUR STOCK OR DEBT SECURITIES OR OUR OPERATING PARTNERSHIP’S DEBT SECURITIES.
Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders of Our Stock
Distributions Generally
Distributions out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits will be treated as dividends and, other than with respect to capital gain dividends and certain amounts which have previously been subject to corporate level tax, as discussed below, will be taxable to our taxable U.S. stockholders as ordinary income when actually or constructively received. See “—Tax Rates” below. As long as we qualify as a REIT, these distributions will not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction in the case of U.S. stockholders that are corporations or, except to the extent provided in “—Tax Rates” below, the preferential rates on qualified dividend income applicable to non-corporate U.S. stockholders, including individuals. For taxable years beginning before January 1, 2026, dividends that we distribute to U.S. stockholders other than corporations that are not designated as capital gain dividends or
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otherwise treated as qualified dividends generally are eligible for a deduction equal to 20% of the amount of such dividends.
To the extent that we make distributions on our stock in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits allocable to such stock, these distributions will be treated first as a tax-free return of capital to a U.S. stockholder. This treatment will reduce the U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares of stock by the amount of the distribution, but not below zero. Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits and in excess of a U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in its shares will be taxable as capital gain. Such gain will be taxable as long-term capital gain if the shares have been held for more than one year. Dividends we declare in October, November, or December of any year and which are payable to a stockholder of record on a specified date in any of these months will be treated as both paid by us and received by the stockholder on December 31 of that year, provided we actually pay the dividend on or before January 31 of the following year. U.S. stockholders may not include in their own income tax returns any of our net operating losses or capital losses.
Capital Gain Dividends
Dividends that we properly designate as capital gain dividends will be taxable to our taxable U.S. stockholders as a gain from the sale or disposition of a capital asset held for more than one year, to the extent that such gain does not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year and do not exceed the total amount of dividends paid for the taxable year, including dividends paid the following year that are treated as paid in the current year, without regard to the period for which a U.S. stockholder has held its stock. U.S. stockholders that are corporations may, however, be required to treat up to 20% of certain capital gain dividends as ordinary income. If we properly designate any portion of a dividend as a capital gain dividend, then, except as otherwise required by law, we presently intend to allocate a portion of the total capital gain dividends paid or made available to holders of all classes of our stock for the year to our stockholders in proportion to the amount that our total dividends, as determined for federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to our stockholders for the year bears to the total dividends, as determined for federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to holders of all classes of our stock for the year.
Retention of Net Capital Gains
We may elect to retain, rather than distribute as a capital gain dividend, all or a portion of our net capital gains. If we make this election, we would pay tax on our retained net capital gains. In addition, to the extent we so elect, our earnings and profits (determined for federal income tax purposes) would be adjusted accordingly, and a U.S. stockholder generally would:
include its pro rata share of our undistributed net capital gains in computing its long-term capital gains in its return for its taxable year in which the last day of our taxable year falls, subject to certain limitations as to the amount that is includable;
be deemed to have paid its share of the capital gains tax imposed on us on the designated amounts included in the U.S. stockholder’s income as long-term capital gain;
receive a credit or refund for the amount of tax deemed paid by it;
increase the adjusted tax basis of its stock by the difference between the amount of includable gains and the tax deemed to have been paid by it; and
in the case of a U.S. stockholder that is a corporation, appropriately adjust its earnings and profits for the retained capital gains in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be promulgated by the IRS.
Passive Activity Losses and Investment Interest Limitations
Distributions we make and gain arising from the sale or exchange by a U.S. stockholder of our shares will not be treated as passive activity income. As a result, U.S. stockholders generally will not be able to apply any “passive losses” against this income or gain. A U.S. stockholder may elect to treat capital gain dividends, capital gains from the disposition of our stock and income designated as qualified dividend income, described in “—Tax Rates” below,
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as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation, but in such case, the stockholder will be taxed at ordinary income rates on such amount. Other distributions made by us, to the extent they do not constitute a return of capital, generally will be treated as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation.
Dispositions of Our Stock
If a U.S. stockholder sells or disposes of shares of our stock, it generally will recognize gain or loss for federal income tax purposes in an amount equal to the difference between the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received on the sale or other disposition and the U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in the shares. This gain or loss, except as provided below, will be a long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. stockholder has held such stock for more than one year. However, if a U.S. stockholder recognizes a loss upon the sale or other disposition of stock that it has held for six months or less, after applying certain holding period rules, the loss recognized will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent the U.S. stockholder received distributions from us which were required to be treated as long-term capital gains.
Redemption or Repurchase by Us.
A redemption or repurchase of shares of our stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits as described above under “—Distributions Generally”) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. The redemption or repurchase generally will be treated as a sale or exchange if it:
is “substantially disproportionate” with respect to the U.S. holder;
results in a “complete redemption” of the U.S. holder’s stock interest in us; or
is “not essentially equivalent to a dividend” with respect to the U.S. holder,
all within the meaning of Section 302(b) of the Code.
In determining whether any of these tests has been met, shares of our stock, and any other equity interests in us, considered to be owned by the U.S. holder by reason of certain constructive ownership rules set forth in the Code, as well as shares of our stock actually owned by the U.S. holder, generally must be taken into account. Because the determination as to whether any of the alternative tests of Section 302(b) of the Code will be satisfied with respect to the U.S. holder depends upon the facts and circumstances at the time that the determination must be made, U.S. holders are advised to consult their tax advisors to determine such tax treatment.
If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our stock is treated as a distribution, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. See “—Distributions Generally.” A U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in the redeemed or repurchased shares generally will be transferred to the holder’s remaining shares of our stock, if any. If a U.S. holder owns no other shares of our stock, under certain circumstances, such basis may be transferred to a related person or it may be lost entirely. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of a redemption or repurchase of our stock.
If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our stock is not treated as a distribution, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described under “—Dispositions of Our Stock.”
Tax Rates
The maximum tax rate for non-corporate taxpayers for (1) capital gains, including certain “capital gain dividends,” is currently 20% (although depending on the characteristics of the assets which produced these gains and on designations which we may make, certain capital gain dividends may be taxed at a 25% rate) and (2) “qualified dividend income” is currently 20%. However, dividends payable by REITs are generally not eligible for the 20% tax rate on qualified dividend income, except to the extent the REIT’s dividends are attributable to dividends received
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from taxable corporations (such as its TRSs) or to income that was subject to tax at the corporate/REIT level (for example, if the REIT distributed taxable income that it retained and paid tax on in the prior taxable year) or to dividends properly designated by the REIT as “capital gain dividends.” In addition, U.S. stockholders that are corporations may be required to treat up to 20% of some capital gain dividends as ordinary income. As described above, for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2026, dividends that we distribute to non-corporate U.S. stockholders that are not designated as capital gain dividends or otherwise treated as qualified dividends generally will be eligible for a deduction equal to 20% of the amount of such dividends. Under final regulations recently issued by the IRS, in order to qualify for this deduction with respect to a dividend on our stock, a shareholder must hold such shares for more than 45 days during the 91-day period beginning on the date which is 45 days before the date on which such shares become ex-dividend with respect to such dividend (taking into account certain special holding period rules that may, among other consequences, reduce a shareholder’s holding period during any period in which the shareholder has diminished its risk of loss with respect to the shares). Shareholders are urged to consult their tax advisors as to their ability to claim this deduction.
Medicare Tax on Unearned Income
Certain U.S. stockholders that are individuals, estates or trusts will be required to pay a 3.8% tax on “net investment income,” which includes, among other things, dividends on and gains from the sale or other disposition of shares. U.S. stockholders should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of this tax on their ownership and disposition of our stock.
Taxation of Tax-Exempt Stockholders of Our Stock
Dividend income from us and gain arising upon a sale of our shares generally should not be unrelated business taxable income, or UBTI to a tax-exempt stockholder, except as described below. This income or gain will be UBTI, however, if a tax-exempt stockholder holds its shares as “debt-financed property” within the meaning of the Code. Generally, “debt-financed property” is property the acquisition or holding of which was financed through a borrowing by the tax-exempt stockholder.
For tax-exempt stockholders that are social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations or supplemental unemployment benefit trusts exempt from federal income taxation under Sections 501(c)(7), (c)(9) or (c)(17) of the Code, respectively, income from an investment in our shares will constitute UBTI unless the organization is able to properly claim a deduction for amounts set aside or placed in reserve for specific purposes so as to offset the income generated by its investment in our shares. These prospective investors should consult their tax advisors concerning these “set aside” and reserve requirements.
Notwithstanding the above, however, a portion of the dividends paid by a “pension-held REIT” may be treated as UBTI as to certain trusts that hold more than 10%, by value, of the interests in the REIT. We will not be a pension-held REIT unless (1) either (a) one pension trust owns more than 25% of the value of our stock, or (b) a group of pension trusts, each individually holding more than 10% of the value of our stock, collectively owns more than 50% of such stock and (2) we would not have qualified as a REIT but for the fact that Section 856(h)(3) of the Code provides that stock owned by such trusts shall be treated, for purposes of the requirement that not more than 50% of the value of the outstanding stock of a REIT is owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer “individuals” (as defined in the Code to include certain entities), as owned by the beneficiaries of such trusts. Tax-exempt U.S. stockholders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal, state, local and foreign tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our stock.
Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders of Our Stock
The following discussion addresses the rules governing federal income taxation of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our stock by non-U.S. stockholders. These rules are complex, and no attempt is made herein to provide more than a brief summary of such rules. Accordingly, the discussion does not address all aspects of federal income taxation and does not address state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences that may be relevant to a non-U.S. stockholder in light of its particular circumstances. We urge non-U.S. stockholders to consult their tax advisors to determine the impact of federal, state, local and non-U.S. income tax laws on the purchase, ownership and disposition of shares of our stock, including any tax return filing and other reporting requirements.
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If you are a non-U.S. stockholder, this discussion further assumes that:
you will not have held more than 10% of our stock (taking into account applicable constructive ownership rules) at any time during the five-year period ending on the date on which you dispose of our stock or receive distributions from us; and
our stock is and will continue to be “regularly traded” on an established securities market located in the United States within the meaning of the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980, or FIRPTA, although there can be no assurance that this will continue to be the case; and
that you are not a “qualified shareholder”, as defined in Section 897(k)(3)(A) of the Code, which describes certain partnerships and other collective investment vehicles that satisfy various recordkeeping, administrative and other requirements.
If you are a non-U.S. stockholder as to which any of these assumptions is not accurate, and in particular if you are a “qualified shareholder” within the meaning of FIRPTA, you should consult your own tax advisor concerning the tax consequence to you of sales of our stock and the receipt of dividends and other distributions from us.
Distributions Generally
Distributions (including any taxable stock dividends) that are neither attributable to gains from sales or exchanges by us of U.S. real property interests, or USRPIs, nor designated by us as capital gain dividends (except as described below) will be treated as dividends of ordinary income to the extent that they are made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. Such distributions ordinarily will be subject to withholding of federal income tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty, unless the distributions are treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. stockholder of a U.S. trade or business (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. stockholder maintains a permanent establishment in the U.S. to which such dividends are attributable). Under certain tax treaties, however, lower withholding rates generally applicable to U.S. corporate dividends do not apply to dividends from a U.S. REIT. Foreign sovereigns and their agencies and instrumentalities may be exempt from such withholding taxes on REIT dividends under the Code, and pension funds and other tax-exempt organizations from certain countries may be exempt from such withholding taxes under an applicable tax treaty. Dividends that are treated as effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business will generally not be subject to withholding but will be subject to federal income tax on a net basis at graduated rates, in the same manner as dividends paid to U.S. stockholders are subject to federal income tax. Any such effectively connected dividends received by a non-U.S. stockholder that is a corporation may also be subject to an additional branch profits tax at a 30% rate (applicable after deducting federal income taxes paid on such effectively connected income) or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty.
Except as otherwise provided below, we expect to withhold federal income tax at the rate of 30% on any distributions made to a non-U.S. stockholder unless:
such non-U.S. stockholder is a pension fund or one of certain other organizations exempt from taxation in a home jurisdiction that has a bilateral tax treaty with the United States providing for an exemption from U.S. withholding tax on dividends;
such non-U.S. stockholder is a foreign government or a foreign government’s agency or instrumentality not engaged in commercial activities, or a foreign governmental entity that is eligible for Section 892 of the Code and the applicable Treasury Regulations and eligible for exemption from U.S. withholding tax thereunder;
a lower treaty rate applies and the non-U.S. stockholder files with us an IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E evidencing eligibility for that reduced treaty rate; or
the non-U.S. stockholder files an IRS Form W-8ECI with us claiming that the distribution is income effectively connected with the non-U.S. stockholder’s trade or business.
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Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a non-U.S. stockholder to the extent that such distributions do not exceed the adjusted tax basis of the non-U.S. stockholder’s stock, but rather will reduce the adjusted tax basis of such stock. To the extent that such distributions exceed the non-U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in such stock, they will give rise to gain from the sale or exchange of such stock, the tax treatment of which is described below. For withholding purposes, because we generally cannot determine at the time we make a distribution whether the distribution will exceed our current and accumulated earnings and profits, we expect to treat all distributions as made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits for withholding purposes. However, amounts withheld may be refundable if it is subsequently determined that the distribution was, in fact, in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, provided that certain conditions are met.
Capital Gain Dividends
Distributions attributable to gain from the disposition of a USRPI will be treated as dividends of ordinary income to the extent that they are made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. See “Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders—Distributions Generally.”
Distributions to a non-U.S. stockholder that do not arise from the disposition of a USRPI and that we properly designate as capital gain dividends generally should not be subject to federal income taxation, unless:
the investment in our stock is treated as effectively connected with the non-U.S. stockholder’s U.S. trade or business (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. stockholder maintains a permanent establishment in the U.S. to which such dividends are attributable), in which case the non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. stockholders with respect to such gain, except that a non-U.S. stockholder that is a non-U.S. corporation may also be subject to a branch profits tax of up to 30%, as discussed above; or
the non-U.S. stockholder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to a 30% tax on the non-U.S. holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of such non-U.S. stockholder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the non-U.S. stockholder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.
Retention of Net Capital Gains
Although the law is not clear on the matter, it appears that amounts we designate as retained net capital gains in respect of the stock held by stockholders generally should be treated with respect to non-U.S. stockholders in the same manner as actual distributions of capital gain dividends. Under this approach, the non-U.S. stockholders would be able to offset as a credit against their federal income tax liability their proportionate share of the tax that we paid on such retained net capital gains and to receive from the IRS a refund to the extent their proportionate share of such tax that we paid exceeds their actual federal income tax liability. If we were to designate any portion of our net capital gain as retained net capital gain, non-U.S. stockholders should consult their tax advisors regarding the taxation of such retained net capital gain.
Dispositions of Our Stock
Subject to the previously noted assumptions, if you are a non-U.S. stockholder, you generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the gain realized upon a sale of our stock unless:
your shares of our stock are treated as being effectively connected with your U.S. trade or business (and, if a bilateral tax treaty applies, is attributable to a U.S. permanent establishment maintained by you) in which case you will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to such gain, except that a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to the 30% branch profits tax (or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such gain, as adjusted for certain items; or
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you are a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the calendar year and certain other conditions are met, in which case you will be subject to a 30% tax on your capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by your U.S. source capital losses (even though you are not considered a resident of the United States), provided you have timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.
Redemption or Repurchase by Us.
A redemption or repurchase of shares of our stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. See “—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders of Our Stock—Redemption or Repurchase by Us.” Qualified shareholders and their owners may be subject to different rules, and should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of such rules. If the redemption or repurchase of shares is treated as a distribution, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. See “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders of Our Stock—Distributions Generally” above. If the redemption or repurchase of shares is not treated as a distribution, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described above under “—Dispositions of Our Capital Stock.”
Taxation of U.S. Holders of Our Debt Securities and Our Operating Partnership’s Debt Securities
Interest
Stated interest on a debt security will be included in the income of a U.S. holder as ordinary income at the time such interest is received or accrued, in accordance with the U.S. holder’s regular method of accounting.
Sale or Other Taxable Disposition
In general, a U.S. holder of a debt security will recognize gain or loss upon the sale, retirement, redemption or other taxable disposition of that debt security in an amount equal to the difference between (1) the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received in exchange therefor (excluding any amounts attributable to accrued and unpaid interest, which will be taxable as described above) and (2) the U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in that debt security. A U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in a debt security generally will be equal to the price paid for that debt security. Any gain or loss generally will be capital gain or loss, and will be long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. holder has held the debt securities for more than one year at the time of such sale or other taxable disposition. Otherwise, such gain or loss will be short-term capital gain or loss. Long-term capital gains recognized by certain non-corporate U.S. holders, including individuals, generally will be taxable at reduced rates. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations.
Medicare Tax on Unearned Income
Certain U.S. holders that are individuals, estates or trusts will be required to pay a 3.8% tax on “net investment income,” which includes, among other things, interest income and net gain from the disposition of debt securities, unless such interest income and net gain is derived in the ordinary course of the conduct of a trade or business (other than a trade or business that consists of certain passive or trading activities). U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of this tax on their ownership and disposition of the debt securities.
Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Debt Securities and Our Operating Partnership’s Debt Securities
Interest
Interest paid on a debt security to a non-U.S. holder that is not effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax or withholding, provided that:
the non-U.S. holder does not, actually or constructively, own 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of our stock entitled to vote, in the case of our debt securities, or 10% or more of our
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operating partnership’s capital or profits, in the case of interest paid on our operating partnership’s debt securities;
the non-U.S. holder is not a controlled foreign corporation related to us, in the case of our debt securities, or our operating partnership, in the case of our operating partnership’s debt securities, through actual or constructive stock ownership (within the meaning of Section 864(d)(4) of the Code);
the non-U.S. holder is not a bank receiving interest under Section 881(c)(3)(A) of the Code; and
either (1) the non-U.S. holder provides its name and address on an IRS Form W-8BEN or IRS Form W-8BEN-E (or other applicable form) and certifies, under penalties of perjury, that it is not a U.S. holder, or (2) the non-U.S. holder holds its debt securities through certain foreign intermediaries and satisfies the certification requirements of applicable Treasury regulations. Special certification rules apply to non-U.S. holders that are pass-through entities rather than corporations or individuals.
If a non-U.S. holder does not satisfy the requirements above, such non-U.S. holder will be subject to withholding tax at a rate of 30%, subject to a reduction in or an exemption from withholding as a result of an applicable tax treaty. To claim such entitlement, the non-U.S. holder must provide the applicable withholding agent with a properly executed IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable documentation) claiming a reduction in or exemption from withholding tax under an applicable tax treaty.
If interest paid to a non-U.S. holder is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such interest is attributable), the non-U.S. holder will be exempt from the U.S. federal withholding tax described above. To claim the exemption, the non-U.S. holder must furnish to the applicable withholding agent a valid IRS Form W-8ECI, certifying that interest paid on a debt security is not subject to withholding tax because it is effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States.
Any such effectively connected interest generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the regular rates. A non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such effectively connected interest, as adjusted for certain items.
The certifications described above must be provided to the applicable withholding agent prior to the payment of interest and must be updated periodically. Non-U.S. holders that do not timely provide the applicable withholding agent with the required certification, but that qualify for a reduced rate under an applicable income tax treaty, may obtain a refund of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing an appropriate claim for refund with the IRS. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their entitlement to benefits under any applicable income tax treaty.
Sale or Other Taxable Disposition
A non-U.S. holder will generally not be subject to U.S. federal income or withholding tax on any gain realized upon the sale, retirement, redemption or other taxable disposition of a debt security (excluding any amounts attributable to accrued and unpaid interest, which will be subject to the rules discussed above) unless:
the gain is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such gain is attributable); or
the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year of the disposition and certain other requirements are met.
Gain described in the first bullet point above generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net income basis at the regular rates. A non-U.S. holder that is a corporation also may be subject to a branch profits tax
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at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such effectively connected gain, as adjusted for certain items.
A non-U.S. holder described in the second bullet point above will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on gain realized upon the sale or other taxable disposition of a debt security, which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of the non-U.S. holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.
Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding any applicable income tax treaties that may provide for different rules.
Information Reporting and Backup Withholding
U.S. Holders
We are required to report to our U.S. holders and the IRS the amount of dividends and interest paid during each calendar year, and the amount of any tax withheld, with respect to our stock and debt securities and our operating partnership’s debt securities. Under the backup withholding rules, a U.S. holder may be subject to backup withholding with respect to payments on our stock and debt securities and our operating partnership’s debt securities, including proceeds from the sale or other taxable disposition thereof, unless the holder is a corporation or comes within certain other exempt categories and, when required, demonstrates this fact, or provides a taxpayer identification number, certifies as to no loss of exemption from backup withholding, and otherwise complies with applicable requirements of the backup withholding rules. A U.S. holder that does not provide us with its correct taxpayer identification number may also be subject to penalties imposed by the IRS. Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amount paid as backup withholding may be allowed as a credit or refund against a U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS. U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their qualification for an exemption from backup withholding and the procedures for obtaining such exemption.
Non-U.S. Holders
Generally, we must report annually to the IRS the amount of dividends and interest paid to a non-U.S. holder of our stock or debt securities or our operating partnership’s debt securities, such holder’s name and address, and the amount of tax withheld, if any. A similar report is sent to the non-U.S. holder. Pursuant to tax treaties or other agreements, the IRS may make its reports available to tax authorities in the non-U.S. holder’s country of residence.
Payments of dividends, interest or proceeds from the disposition of stock or debt securities made to a non-U.S. holder may be subject to information reporting and backup withholding unless such holder establishes an exemption, for example, by properly certifying its non-U.S. status on an IRS Form W-8BEN or another appropriate version of IRS Form W-8. Notwithstanding the foregoing, backup withholding and information reporting may apply if either we have or our paying agent has actual knowledge, or reason to know, that a non-U.S. holder is a United States person.
Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Rather, the federal income tax liability of persons subject to backup withholding will be reduced by the amount of tax withheld. If withholding results in an overpayment of taxes, a refund or credit may be obtained, provided that the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.
Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”)
Withholding taxes may be imposed (at a 30% rate) on certain U.S. source payments made to “foreign financial institutions” and certain other non-U.S. entities. Under these withholding rules, the failure to comply with additional certification, information reporting and other specified requirements could result in withholding tax being imposed on payments of dividends and interest to U.S. holders who own shares of our stock or debt securities or our operating partnership’s debt securities through foreign accounts or foreign intermediaries and to certain non-U.S. holders. The withholding tax may be imposed on dividends on our stock or interest on our debt securities or our
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operating partnership’s debt securities paid to a foreign financial institution or to a foreign entity other than a financial institution, unless (i) the foreign financial institution undertakes certain diligence and reporting obligations or certifies that it is exempt from such obligations or, (ii) the foreign entity that is not a financial institution either certifies it does not have any substantial U.S. owners or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial U.S. owner. If the payee is a foreign financial institution that is not otherwise exempt, it must either enter into an agreement with the U.S. Treasury requiring, among other things, that it undertake to identify accounts held by certain United States persons or U.S.-owned foreign entities, annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on payments to account holders whose actions prevent it from complying with these reporting and other requirements, or, in the case of a foreign financial institution that is a resident in a jurisdiction that has entered into an intergovernmental agreement to implement these rules, comply with the revised diligence and reporting obligations of such intergovernmental agreement. Prospective holders of our stock or debt securities or our operating partnership’s debt securities should consult their tax advisors regarding FATCA.
Other Tax Consequences
State, local and non-U.S. income tax laws may differ substantially from the corresponding federal income tax laws, and this discussion does not purport to describe any aspect of the tax laws of any state, local or non-U.S. jurisdiction. You should consult your tax advisor regarding the effect of state, local and non-U.S. tax laws with respect to our tax treatment as a REIT and an investment in our stock or debt securities or our operating partnership’s debt securities.
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We or our operating partnership may sell the securities offered by this prospectus from time to time:
through underwriters or dealers;
through agents;
directly to one or more purchasers; or
through a combination of any of these methods of sale.
We will identify the specific plan of distribution, including any underwriters, dealers, agents or direct purchasers and their compensation in the applicable prospectus supplement.
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LEGAL MATTERS
Certain legal matters, including certain tax matters, will be passed upon for us by Sidley Austin LLP, New York, New York. Venable LLP, Baltimore, Maryland, has issued an opinion to us regarding certain matters of Maryland law.
EXPERTS
The audited consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2023 and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023 incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement have been so incorporated by reference in reliance upon the reports of Grant Thornton LLP, independent registered public accountants, upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.
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PART II
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED BY THE PROSPECTUS
Item 14.    Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.
The following is a statement of the estimated expenses, other than underwriting discounts and commissions payable by us, to be incurred by the registrants in connection with the issuance and distribution of securities registered under this registration statement on Form S-3.
SEC Registration Fee
$                   *
FINRA Filing Fee
                   **
Legal Fees and Expenses
                   **
Accounting Fees and Expenses
                   **
Printing and Delivery Expenses
                   **
Miscellaneous Expenses
                   **
Total:
$                 **
__________________
*    In accordance with Rules 456(b) and Rule 457(c), we are deferring payment of the registration fee.
**    Estimated expenses are not presently known. The foregoing sets forth the general categories of expenses (other than underwriting discounts and commissions) that we anticipate we will incur in connection with the offering of securities under this registration statement on Form S-3. An estimate of the aggregate expenses in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being offered will be included in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Item 15.    Indemnification of Directors and Officers.
Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc.
Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision eliminating the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or active and deliberate dishonesty that is established by a final judgment and is material to the cause of action. Our charter contains such a provision that eliminates such liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.
The MGCL requires a Maryland corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made or threatened to be made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to or in which they may be made or are threatened to be made a party or witness by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:
the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and:
was committed in bad faith; or
was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;
the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or
in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.
However, under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify a director or officer for an adverse judgment in a suit by or on behalf of the corporation or if the director or officer was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, unless, in either case, a court orders indemnification and then only for expenses. A court may order indemnification for expenses if it determines that the director or officer is fairly and
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reasonably entitled to indemnification, even though the director or officer did not meet the prescribed standard of conduct or was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received.
In addition, the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon the corporation’s receipt of:
a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation; and
a written undertaking, which may be unsecured, by the director or officer or on the director’s or officer’s behalf to repay the amount paid if it shall ultimately be determined that the standard of conduct has not been met.
Our charter obligates us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to indemnify and to pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding without requiring a preliminary determination of the director’s or officer’s ultimate entitlement to indemnification to:
any present or former director or officer who is made or threatened to be made a party to, or witness in, the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity; or
any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at our request, serves or has served as a director, officer, partner, member, manager, trustee, employee or agent of another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or any other enterprise and who is made or threatened to be made a party to, or witness in, the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity.
Our charter also permits us, with the approval of our board of directors, to indemnify and advance expenses to any person who served a predecessor of ours in any of the capacities described above and to any employee or agent of our company or a predecessor of our company.
We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and executive officers that obligate us to indemnify them to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law. The indemnification agreements provide that, if a director or executive officer is a party to, or witness in, or is threatened to be made a party to, or witness in, any proceeding by reason of his or her service as a director, officer, employee or agent of our company or as a director, officer, partner, member, manager, fiduciary, employee, agent or trustee of any other foreign or domestic corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise that he or she is or was serving in such capacity at our request, we must indemnify the director or executive officer for all expenses and liabilities actually and reasonably incurred by him or her, or on his or her behalf, to the maximum extent permitted under Maryland law, including in any proceeding brought by the director or executive officer to enforce his or her rights under the indemnification agreement, to the extent provided by the agreement. The indemnification agreements also require us to advance reasonable expenses incurred by the indemnitee within ten days of the receipt by us of a statement from the indemnitee requesting the advance, provided the statement evidences the expenses and is accompanied or preceded by:
a written affirmation of the indemnitee’s good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification; and
a written undertaking, which may be unsecured, by the indemnitee or on his or her behalf to repay the amount paid if it shall ultimately be established that the standard of conduct has not been met.
The indemnification agreements also provide for procedures for the determination of entitlement to indemnification, including requiring such determination be made by independent counsel after a change of control of us.
In addition, our directors and officers may be entitled to indemnification pursuant to the terms of the partnership agreement of Essential Properties, L.P. (our “operating partnership”).
65


Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers or persons controlling our company pursuant to the foregoing provisions, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.
Essential Properties, L.P.
The partnership agreement of our operating partnership (the “partnership agreement”) provides that our operating partnership is required to indemnify Essential Properties OP G.P., LLC, the general partner of our operating partnership (the “general partner”), and its trustees, directors, officers, shareholders, partners, members, employees, representatives or agents or affiliates of the general partner or officers, employees, representatives or agents of our operating partnership from and against any and all losses, claims, damages, liabilities, joint or several, expenses (including attorneys’ fees and other legal fees and expenses), judgments, fines, settlements, and other amounts arising from any and all claims, demands, actions, suits or proceedings, civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, that relate to the operations of our partnership or us, in which such indemnitee may be involved, or is threatened to be involved, as a party or otherwise, except (1) if the act or omission of the indemnitee was material to the matter giving rise to the action and either was committed in bad faith or was the result of active or deliberate dishonesty, (2) for any loss resulting from any transaction for which the indemnified party actually received an improper personal benefit, in money, property or services or otherwise in violation or breach of any provision of the partnership agreement or (3) in the case of a criminal proceeding, if the indemnified person had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.
Item 16.    Exhibits.
Exhibit
1.1*Form of Underwriting Agreement
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
4.1
4.2*Form of Articles Supplementary for Preferred Stock
4.3*Form of Preferred Stock Certificate
4.4
66


Exhibit
4.5
4.6
4.7*
Form of Deposit Agreement
4.8*
Form of Depositary Receipt
4.9*
Form of Warrant
4.10*
Form of Warrant Agreement
4.11*
Form of Rights Agreement
4.12*
Form of Unit Agreement
5.1
5.2
8.1
22.1
23.1
23.2
23.3
23.4
24.1
25.1
25.2
107
__________________
*To be filed by amendment or incorporated by reference in connection with the offering of a particular class of series of securities.
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Item 17.    Undertakings.
(a)The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:
(1)To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:
(i)To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;
(ii)To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Filing Fee Tables” or “Calculation of Registration Fee” table, as applicable, in the effective registration statement; and
(iii)To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;
provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) of this section do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.
(2)That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post- effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(3)To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.
(4)That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:
(i)each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and
(ii)each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5) or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration
68


statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.
(5)That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities: the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:
(i)Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;
(ii)Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;
(iii)The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and
(iv)Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.
(b)The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(c)Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than for the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
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SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Princeton, New Jersey, on this 17th day of June, 2024.
ESSENTIAL PROPERTIES REALTY TRUST, INC.
By:
/s/ Peter M. Mavoides
Peter M. Mavoides
President and Chief Executive Officer
ESSENTIAL PROPERTIES, L.P.
By: Essential Properties OP G.P., LLC, the general partner
By: Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc., the sole member of the general partner
By:
/s/ Peter M. Mavoides
Peter M. Mavoides
President and Chief Executive Officer
SIGNATURES AND POWER OF ATTORNEY
KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Peter M. Mavoides and Mark E. Patten, and each of them, his or her true and lawful attorneys in fact and agents, with full power to act separately and full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him or her and in his or her name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) and exhibits to the Registration Statement on Form S-3, and any registration statement filed under SEC Rule 462, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and all documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto each said attorney in fact and agent full power and authority to do and perform each and every act in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys in fact and agents or any of them or his or their substitute or substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
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Signature
Title
Date 
/s/ Scott A. Estes
Chairman of the Board of DirectorsJune 17, 2024
Scott A. Estes
/s/ Peter M. Mavoides
Director, President and Chief Executive Officer (principal executive officer)June 17, 2024
Peter M. Mavoides
/s/ Mark E. Patten
Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer, Treasurer and Secretary (principal financial officer)
June 17, 2024
Mark E. Patten
/s/ Timothy J. Earnshaw
Senior Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer (principal accounting officer)
June 17, 2024
Timothy J. Earnshaw
/s/ Joyce DeLucca
DirectorJune 17, 2024
Joyce DeLucca
/s/ Lawrence J. Minich
DirectorJune 17, 2024
Lawrence J. Minich
/s/ Heather L. Neary
DirectorJune 17, 2024
Heather L. Neary
/s/ Stephen D. Sautel
DirectorJune 17, 2024
Stephen D. Sautel
/s/ Janaki Sivanesan
DirectorJune 17, 2024
Janaki Sivanesan
71
Exhibit 107
Calculation of Filing Fee Tables
Form S-3
(Form Type)
Essential Properties Trust, Inc.
Essential Properties, L.P.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
Table 1: Newly Registered and Carry Forward Securities

Security Type
Security Class Title
Fee Calculation or Carry Forward Rule
Amount Registered
(1)(2)(5)
Proposed Maximum Offering Price Per Unit(1)(2)
Maximum Aggregate Offering Price(1)(2)
Fee Rate(3)(5)
Amount of Registration Fee
Carry Forward Form Type
Carry Forward File Number
Carry Forward Initial effective date
Filing Fee Previously Paid In Connection with Unsold Securities to be Carried Forward
Newly Registered Securities
Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc.

Fees to Be Paid
Equity
Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share
Rule 457(r)




Fees to Be Paid
Equity
Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share
Rule 457(r)




Fees to Be Paid
Debt
Debt Securities
Rule 457(r)




Fees to Be Paid
Equity
Depositary Shares
Rule 457(r)




Fees to Be Paid
Equity
Warrants
Rule 457(r)




Fees to Be Paid
Other
Rights
Rule 457(r)




Fees to Be Paid
Other
Units
Rule 457(r)




Fees to Be Paid
Debt
Guarantees of Debt Securities(4)(5)
Rule 457(r)




Fees
Previously Paid




Essential Properties, L.P.

Fees to Be Paid
Debt
Debt Securities(4)
Rule 457(r)







Fees
Previously Paid




Carry Forward Securities
Carry Forward Securities




Total Offering Amounts







Total Fees Previously Paid








Total Fee Offsets



$10,806
(6)





Net Fee Due







Table 2: Fee Offset Claims and Sources
Registrant or Filer NameForm or Filing TypeFile NumberInitial Filing DateFiling DateFee Offset ClaimedSecurity Type Associated with Fee Offset Claimed
Security Title
Associated with Fee
Offset Claimed
Unsold Securities Associated with Fee Offset ClaimedUnsold Aggregate Offering Amount Associated with Fee Offset ClaimedFee Paid with Fee Offset Source
Rule 457(p)
Fee Offset
Claim
Essential Properties Realty
Trust, Inc.
424(b)(5)333-257202
May 2, 2022
$10,806 (6)
EquityCommon Stock, $0.01 par value per share
$116,574,305
Fee Offset SourcesEssential Properties Realty
Trust, Inc.
424(b)(5)333-257202
May 2, 2022
$46,350
(1)Omitted pursuant to Form S-3 General Instruction II.E. An unspecified number of securities or aggregate initial offering price, as applicable, is being registered as may from time to time be offered at unspecified prices. Securities registered hereunder may be sold separately, together or as units with other securities registered hereunder
(2)This registration statement also covers an indeterminate amount of each identified class of securities as may be issued upon conversion of, or in exchange for, or upon exercise of, or pursuant to, convertible or exchangeable securities that provide for exercise or conversion into or purchase of such securities. Separate consideration may or may not be received for securities that are issuable on exercise, conversion or exchange of other securities or that are issued in units or represented by depositary shares.
(3)In accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), the Registrants are deferring payment of the entire registration fees. Registration fees will be paid subsequently on a pay as you go basis.
(4)Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc. may fully and unconditionally guarantee the payment of principal of and premium (if any) and interest on debt securities offered by Essential Properties, L.P.
(5)No separate consideration will be received for the guarantees. Pursuant to Rule 457(n) under the Securities Act, no separate fee is payable with respect to the guarantees being registered hereby.
(6)Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc. previously filed a prospectus supplement, dated May 2, 2022 (the “Prior Prospectus Supplement”), pursuant to the Registration Statement on Form S-3 (Registration No. 333-257202), filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 21, 2021 (the “Prior Registration Statement”), relating to the offer and sale of common shares having an aggregate offering price of up to $500,000,000 under its then current “at-the-market” program. In connection with the filing of the Prior Prospectus Supplement, the total registration fee of $46,350 was paid. As of the date of this prospectus supplement, shares of common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $116,574,305 were not sold under the Prior Prospectus Supplement. The offering that included the unsold securities under the Prior Prospectus Supplement has been terminated. Pursuant to Rule 457(p) under the Securities Act, the registration fee of $10,806 that has already been paid and remains unused with respect to securities that were previously registered pursuant to the Prior Prospectus Supplement and were not sold thereunder may be applied to the filing fees payable pursuant to this registration statement.

Exhibit 5.1
venablelogo.jpg
750 E. PRATT STREET SUITE 900 BALTIMORE, MD 21202
T 410.244.7400 F 410.244.7742 www.Venable.com

June 17, 2024
Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc.
902 Carnegie Center Boulevard, Suite 520
Princeton, NJ 08540
Re:    Registration Statement on Form S-3
Ladies and Gentlemen:
We have served as Maryland counsel to Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc., a Maryland corporation (the “Company”), in connection with certain matters of Maryland law relating to the registration by the Company and Essential Properties, L.P., a Delaware limited partnership and the Company’s operating partnership (the “Operating Partnership”), on Form S-3 of the offering sale by the Company and the Operating Partnership, as applicable, of an indeterminate aggregate initial offering price or number of the following securities (collectively, the “Securities”): (i) shares (the “Common Shares”) of common stock of the Company, $0.01 par value per share (“Common Stock”); (ii) shares (the “Preferred Shares”) of preferred stock of the Company, $0.01 par value per share (“Preferred Stock”); (iii) debt securities (the “Company Debt Securities”) of the Company; (iv) debt securities (the “Operating Partnership Debt Securities”) of the Operating Partnership ; (v) guarantees (the “Guarantees”) by the Company of the obligations of the Operating Partnership under the Operating Partnership Debt Securities; (vi) depositary shares of the Company (the “Depositary Shares”); (vii) warrants (the “Warrants”) of the Company; (viii) rights (the “Rights”) of the Company; and (ix) units (the “Units”) of the Company, covered by the above-referenced Registration Statement, and any amendments thereto (collectively, the “Registration Statement”), filed by the Company with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “1933 Act”).
In connection with our representation of the Company and as a basis for the opinion hereinafter set forth, we have examined originals, or copies certified or otherwise identified to our satisfaction, of the following documents (hereinafter collectively referred to as the “Documents”):
1.    The Registration Statement and the related form of prospectus included therein, in the form in which they were transmitted to the Commission under the 1933 Act;
2.    The charter of the Company (the “Charter”), certified by the State Department of Assessments and Taxation of Maryland (the “SDAT”);
3.    The Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Company (the “Bylaws”), certified as of the date hereof by an officer of the Company;


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Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc.
June 17, 2024
Page 2
4.    A certificate of the SDAT as to the good standing of the Company, dated as of a recent date;
5.    Resolutions adopted by the Board of Directors of the Company (the “Board”), relating to, among other matters, the registration and issuance of the Securities, certified as of the date hereof by an officer of the Company;
6.    A certificate executed by an officer of the Company, dated as of the date hereof; and
7.    Such other documents and matters as we have deemed necessary or appropriate to express the opinion set forth below, subject to the assumptions, limitations and qualifications stated herein.
In expressing the opinion set forth below, we have assumed the following:
1.    Each individual executing any of the Documents, whether on behalf of such individual or another person, is legally competent to do so.
2.    Each individual executing any of the Documents on behalf of a party (other than the Company) is duly authorized to do so.
3.    Each of the parties (other than the Company) executing any of the Documents has duly and validly executed and delivered each of the Documents to which such party is a signatory, and such party’s obligations set forth therein are legal, valid and binding and are enforceable in accordance with all stated terms.
4.    All Documents submitted to us as originals are authentic. The form and content of all Documents submitted to us as unexecuted drafts do not differ in any respect relevant to this opinion from the form and content of such Documents as executed and delivered. All Documents submitted to us as certified or photostatic copies conform to the original documents. All signatures on all Documents are genuine. All public records reviewed or relied upon by us or on our behalf are true and complete. All representations, warranties, statements and information contained in the Documents are true and complete. There has been no oral or written modification of or amendment to any of the Documents, and there has been no waiver of any provision of any of the Documents, by action or omission of the parties or otherwise.
5.    The issuance, and certain terms, of the Securities to be issued by the Company from time to time will be authorized and approved by the Board, or a duly authorized committee thereof, in accordance with the Maryland General Corporation Law, the Charter, the Bylaws and the Registration Statement and, with respect to any Preferred Shares, articles supplementary setting forth the number of shares and the terms of such class or series of Preferred Shares (the “Articles Supplementary”) to be issued by the Company will be filed with


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Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc.
June 17, 2024
Page 3
and accepted for record by the SDAT prior to their issuance (such approvals and, if applicable, acceptance for record, referred to herein as the “Corporate Proceedings”).
6.    Upon the issuance of any Securities that are Common Shares (“Common Securities”), including Common Securities which may be issued upon the conversion, exchange, redemption or exercise of any Securities convertible into or exchangeable, redeemable or exercisable for Common Securities, the total number of Common Shares issued and outstanding will not exceed the total number of shares of Common Stock that the Company is then authorized to issue under the Charter.
7.    Upon the issuance of any Securities that are Preferred Shares (“Preferred Securities”), including Preferred Securities which may be issued upon conversion, exchange, redemption or exercise of any other Securities convertible into or exchangeable, redeemable or exercisable for Preferred Securities, the total number of Preferred Shares issued and outstanding, and the total number of issued and outstanding shares of the applicable class or series of Preferred Stock designated pursuant to the Charter, will not exceed the total number of Preferred Shares or the number of shares of such class or series of Preferred Stock that the Company is then authorized to issue under the Charter.
8.    None of the Securities will be issued, sold or transferred in violation of the restrictions on ownership and transfer set forth in the Charter or, if applicable, any comparable provision of the Articles Supplementary.
9.    Any Securities convertible into or exchangeable, redeemable or exercisable for any other Securities will be duly converted, exchanged, redeemed or exercised in accordance with their terms.
Based upon the foregoing, and subject to the assumptions, limitations and qualifications stated herein, it is our opinion that:
1.    The Company is a corporation duly incorporated and validly existing under and by virtue of the laws of the State of Maryland and is in good standing with the SDAT.
2.    Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to the Common Securities, the issuance of the Common Securities will be duly authorized and, when and if issued and delivered against payment therefor in accordance with the Registration Statement, the Resolutions and the Corporate Proceedings, the Common Securities will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.
3.    Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to the Preferred Securities, the issuance of the Preferred Securities will be duly authorized and, when and if issued and delivered against payment therefor in accordance with the Resolutions and the Corporate Proceedings, the Preferred Securities will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.


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4.    Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to the Company Debt Securities, the issuance of the Company Debt Securities will be duly authorized.
5.    Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to the Guarantees, the issuance of the Guarantees will be duly authorized.
6.    Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to the Depositary Shares, the issuance of the Depositary Shares will be duly authorized.
7.    Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to the Warrants, the issuance of the Warrants will be duly authorized.
8.    Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to the Units, the issuance of the Units will be duly authorized.
9.    Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to the Rights, the issuance of the Rights will be duly authorized.
The foregoing opinion is limited to the laws of the State of Maryland and we do not express any opinion herein concerning federal law or the laws of any other state. We express no opinion as to the applicability or effect of federal or state securities laws, including the securities laws of the State of Maryland, federal or state laws regarding fraudulent transfers or the laws, codes or regulations of any municipality or other local jurisdiction. To the extent that any matter as to which our opinion is expressed herein would be governed by the laws of any jurisdiction other than the State of Maryland, we do not express any opinion on such matter. The opinion expressed herein is subject to the effect of any judicial decision which may permit the introduction of parol evidence to modify the terms or the interpretation of agreements.
The opinion expressed herein is limited to the matters specifically set forth herein and no other opinion shall be inferred beyond the matters expressly stated. We assume no obligation to supplement this opinion if any applicable law changes after the date hereof or if we become aware of any fact that might change the opinion expressed herein after the date hereof.
This opinion is being furnished to you for submission to the Commission as an exhibit to the Registration Statement. We hereby consent to the filing of this opinion as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and to the use of the name of our firm therein. In giving this consent, we do not admit that we are within the category of persons whose consent is required by Section 7 of the 1933 Act.
Very truly yours,
/s/ Venable LLP

Exhibit 5.2
exhibit521aa.jpg

SIDLEY AUSTIN LLP
787 SEVENTH AVENUE
NEW YORK, NY 10019
+1 212 839 5300
+1 212 839 5599 FAX
AMERICA l ASIA PACIFIC l EUROPE

June 17, 2024
Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc.
Essential Properties, L.P.
902 Carnegie Center Blvd., Suite 520
Princeton, New Jersey 08540
Re: Registration Statement on Form S-3
Ladies and Gentlemen:
We refer to the Registration Statement on Form S-3 (the “Registration Statement”) being filed by Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc., a Maryland corporation (the “Company”), and Essential Properties, L.P., a Delaware limited partnership and the principal operating subsidiary of the Company (the “Operating Partnership”), with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), relating to the registration of an unlimited amount of:
(i) shares of the Company’s common stock, $0.01 par value per share (“Common Stock”);
(ii) shares of the Company’s preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share (“Preferred Stock”);
(iii) debt securities of the Company (“Company Debt Securities”);
(iv) shares of Preferred Stock represented by depositary shares (“Depositary Shares”);
(v) warrants to purchase Common Stock or Preferred Stock (“Warrants”);
(vi) rights to purchase Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Company Debt Securities, Depositary Shares, Warrants, Units (as defined below), Operating Partnership Debt Securities (as defined below) and Guarantees (as defined below) (“Rights”);
(vii) Units consisting of two or more of Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Company Debt Securities, Depositary Shares, Warrants, Rights, Operating Partnership Debt Securities or Guarantees (“Units”);
(viii) debt securities of the Operating Partnership (“Operating Partnership Debt Securities”); and
Sidley Austin (NY) LLP is a Delaware limited liability partnership doing business as Sidley Austin LLP and practicing in affiliation with other Sidley Austin partnerships.


Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc.
Essential Properties, L.P.
June 17, 2024
Page 2
(ix) guarantees by the Company of Operating Partnership Debt Securities (the “Guarantees”).
The Common Stock, the Preferred Stock, the Company Debt Securities, the Depositary Shares, the Warrants, the Rights, the Units, the Operating Partnership Debt Securities and the Guarantees are collectively referred to herein as the “Securities.”
Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement:
(1) the Depositary Shares will be issued under a deposit agreement (a “Deposit Agreement”) to be entered into between the Company and a depositary agent (the “Depositary Agent”);
(2) the Company Debt Securities will be issued under an indenture (the “Company Indenture”) to be entered into between the Company and U.S. Bank Trust Company, National Association (as successor to U.S. Bank National Association), as trustee (the “Trustee”), and one or more supplements thereto or officer’s certificates thereunder;
(3) the Operating Partnership Debt Securities will be issued under the indenture dated as of June 28, 2021, as amended and supplemented as of the date hereof (the “Operating Partnership Indenture”), among the Operating Partnership, the Company and the Trustee, as trustee, and one or more supplements thereto or officer’s certificates thereunder;
(4) the Warrants will be issued under a warrant agreement (the “Warrant Agreement”) to be entered into between the Company and a warrant agent (the “Warrant Agent”);
(5) the Rights will be issued under a rights agreement (the “Rights Agreement”) to be entered into between the Company and a rights agent (the “Rights Agent”); and
(6) the Units will be issued under a unit agreement (the “Unit Agreement”) to be entered into between the Company and a unit agent (the “Unit Agent”);
in each case substantially in the form that has been or will be filed as an exhibit to the Registration Statement. The Company Indenture, the Operating Partnership Indenture, any supplemental indentures, any officer’s certificates, any Deposit Agreement, any Warrant Agreement, any Rights Agreement, any Unit Agreement and any certificates evidencing any of the Securities are hereinafter called, collectively, the “Transaction Documents.”
This opinion letter is being delivered in accordance with the requirements of Item 601(b)(5) of Regulation S-K under the Securities Act.



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In connection with this opinion, we have examined and relied upon originals, or copies identified to our satisfaction, of the Registration Statement, the exhibits thereto, the Certificate of Limited Partnership of the Operating Partnership (the “Certificate of Limited Partnership”) and the Agreement of Limited Partnership of the Operating Partnership (the “Partnership Agreement”). We have also relied upon the resolutions adopted by the board of directors of the Company (the “Board”) on behalf of the Company and in the Company’s capacity as the sole member of Essential Properties OP G.P., LLC, a Delaware limited liability company (the “General Partner”), on behalf of the General Partner, acting in its own capacity and in its capacity as the sole general partner of the Operating Partnership relating to the Registration Statement. We have also examined originals, or copies of originals certified to our satisfaction, of such agreements, documents, certificates and statements of the Company and the Operating Partnership and other corporate documents and instruments, and have examined such questions of law, as we have considered relevant and necessary as a basis for this opinion letter. We have assumed the authenticity of all documents submitted to us as originals, the genuineness of all signatures, the legal capacity of all persons and the conformity with the original documents of any copies thereof submitted to us for examination. The Articles of Amendment and Restatement of the Company, as amended to the date hereof (the “Charter”), the Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Company (the “Bylaws”), the Certificate of Limited Partnership and the Partnership Agreement are collectively referred to herein as the “Governing Documents”. As to facts relevant to the opinions expressed herein, we have relied without independent investigation or verification upon, and assumed the accuracy and completeness of, certificates, letters and oral and written statements and representations of public officials and officers and other representatives of the Company and the Operating Partnership.
Based on and subject to the foregoing and the other limitations, qualifications and assumptions set forth herein, we are of the opinion that:
1.     With respect to an offering of Depositary Shares covered by the Registration Statement, the Depositary Shares will entitle the holders thereof to the rights specified in such Depositary Shares and the Deposit Agreement relating to the Depositary Shares when: (i) the Registration Statement, as finally amended (including any necessary post-effective amendments), shall have become effective under the Securities Act; (ii) a prospectus supplement with respect to the Depositary Shares and the series of Preferred Stock underlying such Depositary Shares (the “Underlying Preferred Stock”) shall have been filed with the SEC in compliance with the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder; (iii) a Deposit Agreement relating to such issue of Depositary Shares shall have been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and duly executed and delivered by the Depositary Agent named in the Deposit Agreement; (iv) the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof shall have taken all necessary corporate action in accordance with the Charter and Bylaws and the Company shall have taken all necessary action under applicable laws in connection with the authorization, creation, issuance, sale and delivery of such Depositary Shares and the Underlying Preferred Stock; (v)



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certificates representing the Underlying Preferred Stock shall have been duly executed, countersigned and registered and duly delivered against payment of the agreed consideration therefor or, if any shares of such Underlying Preferred Stock are to be issued in uncertificated form, the Company’s books shall reflect the issuance of such shares in accordance with the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement upon payment of the agreed consideration therefor; (vi) depositary receipts evidencing the Depositary Shares shall have been duly executed and delivered by the Depositary Agent in the manner set forth in the Deposit Agreement, and shall have been duly delivered in accordance with the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement to the purchasers thereof against payment of the agreed consideration therefor.
2.     With respect to an offering of Warrants covered by the Registration Statement, such Warrants will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company when: (i) the Registration Statement, as finally amended (including any necessary post-effective amendments), shall have become effective under the Securities Act; (ii) a prospectus supplement with respect to such issue of Warrants and the Common Stock or Preferred Stock, as the case may be, issuable upon exercise of such Warrants (the “Warrant Securities”) shall have been filed with the SEC in compliance with the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder; (iii) a Warrant Agreement relating to such issue of Warrants shall have been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and duly executed and delivered by the Warrant Agent named in the Warrant Agreement; (iv) the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof shall have taken all necessary corporate action in accordance with the Charter and Bylaws and the Company shall have taken all necessary action under applicable laws in connection with the authorization, creation, issuance and sale of such Warrants and the applicable Warrant Securities; (v) if the Warrant Securities are shares of Common Stock, the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof shall have taken all necessary action in accordance with the Charter and Bylaws and the Company shall have taken all necessary action under applicable laws in connection with the authorization, issuance, sale and delivery of such Common Stock at a purchase price per share in an amount not less than the par value thereof upon exercise of the Warrants; (vi) if the Warrant Securities are shares of any series of Preferred Stock, the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof shall have taken all necessary corporate action in accordance with the Charter and Bylaws and the Company shall have taken all necessary action under applicable laws in connection with the authorization, creation, issuance, sale and delivery of such Preferred Stock at a purchase price per share in an amount not less than the par value thereof upon exercise of the Warrants; and (vii) certificates representing such Warrants shall have been duly executed and delivered by duly authorized officers of the Company, countersigned (if applicable) by such Warrant Agent in accordance with the Warrant Agreement and duly delivered to the purchasers thereof against payment of the agreed consideration therefor.
3.     With respect to an offering of Rights covered by the Registration Statement, such Rights will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company when: (i) the Registration



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Statement, as finally amended (including any necessary post-effective amendments), shall have become effective under the Securities Act; (ii) a prospectus supplement with respect to such issue of the Rights and the Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Depositary Shares, Warrants, Company Debt Securities, Operating Partnership Debt Securities (and any related Guarantees) or Units, as the case may be (in each case, the “Rights Securities”), issuable upon exercise of such Rights shall have been filed with the SEC in compliance with the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder; (iii) a Rights Agreement relating to such issue of Rights shall have been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and duly executed and delivered by the Rights Agent named in the Rights Agreement; (iv) the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof shall have taken all necessary corporate action in accordance with the Charter and Bylaws and the Company shall have taken all necessary action under applicable laws in connection with the authorization, creation, issuance and sale of such Rights and the applicable Rights Securities; (v) if such Rights relate to the issuance and sale of shares of Common Stock, the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof shall have taken all necessary corporate action in accordance with the Charter and Bylaws and the Company shall have taken all necessary action under applicable laws in connection with the authorization, issuance, sale and delivery of such Common Stock at a purchase price per share in an amount not less than the par value thereof upon exercise of the Rights; (vi) if such Rights relate to shares of any series of Preferred Stock, the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof shall have taken all necessary corporate action in accordance with the Charter and Bylaws and the Company shall have taken all necessary action under applicable laws in connection with the authorization, creation, issuance, sale and delivery of such Preferred Stock at a purchase price per share in an amount not less than the par value thereof upon exercise of the Rights; (vii) if such Rights relate to Company Debt Securities or Operating Partnership Debt Securities (and any related Guarantee), the actions described in paragraph 5 or 6, as applicable, shall have been taken; (viii) if such Rights relate to the issuance and sale of Depositary Shares, the actions described in paragraph 1 shall have been taken; (ix) if such Rights relate to the issuance and sale of Warrants, the actions described in paragraph 2 shall have been taken; (x) if such Rights relate to the issuance and sale of Units, the actions described in paragraph 4 shall have been taken; and (xi) certificates representing such Rights shall have been duly executed, countersigned and registered in accordance with the Rights Agreement and shall have been duly delivered to the purchasers thereof in accordance with the Rights Agreement against payment of the agreed consideration therefor.
4.     With respect to an offering of Units covered by the Registration Statement, such Units will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company when: (i) the Registration Statement, as finally amended (including any necessary post-effective amendments), shall have become effective under the Securities Act; (ii) a prospectus supplement with respect to such issue of the Units and the Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Depositary Shares, Warrants, Company Debt Securities, Operating Partnership Debt Securities (and any related Guarantees) or Rights, as the case may be (in each case, the “Units Securities”), included as a component of such Units shall have been filed with the SEC in compliance with the Securities Act and the rules



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and regulations thereunder; (iii) a Unit Agreement relating to such issue of Units shall have been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and duly executed and delivered by the Unit Agent named in the Unit Agreement (iv) the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof shall have taken all necessary corporate action in accordance with the Charter and Bylaws and the Company shall have taken all necessary action under applicable laws in connection with the authorization, creation, issuance and sale of such Units and the applicable Units Securities; (v) if such Units relate to the issuance and sale of shares of Common Stock, the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof shall have taken all necessary corporate action in accordance with the Charter and Bylaws and the Company shall have taken all necessary action under applicable laws in connection with the authorization, issuance, sale and delivery of such Common Stock at a purchase price per share in an amount not less than the par value thereof; (vi) if such Units relate to the issuance and sale of shares of any series of Preferred Stock, the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof shall have taken all necessary corporate action in accordance with the Charter and Bylaws and the Company shall have taken all necessary action under applicable laws in connection with the authorization, creation, issuance, sale and delivery of such Preferred Stock at a purchase price per share in an amount not less than the par value thereof; (vii) if such Units relate to the issuance and sale of Depositary Shares, the actions described in paragraph 1 shall have been taken; (viii) if such Units relate to the issuance and sale of Warrants, the actions described in paragraph 2 shall have been taken; (ix) if such Units relate to the issuance and sale of Company Debt Securities or Operating Partnership Debt Securities (and related Guarantees), the actions described in paragraph 5 or 6, as applicable, shall have been taken; (x) if such Units relate to the issuance and sale of Rights, the actions described in paragraph 3 shall have been taken; and (xi) certificates representing such Units shall have been duly executed, countersigned and registered and shall have been duly delivered to the purchasers thereof in accordance with the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement against payment of the agreed consideration therefor.
5.     With respect to an offering of Company Debt Securities of any series covered by the Registration Statement, the Company Debt Securities will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company when: (i) the Registration Statement, as finally amended (including any necessary post-effective amendments), shall have become effective under the Securities Act and the Company Indenture (including any necessary supplemental indenture) shall have been qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended; (ii) a prospectus supplement with respect to such series of Company Debt Securities shall have been filed with the SEC in compliance with the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder; (iii) the Company Indenture shall have been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and the Trustee; (iv) all necessary corporate action shall have been taken by the Company in accordance with the Charter and Bylaws to authorize the form, terms, execution, delivery, performance, issuance and sale of such series of Company Debt Securities as contemplated by the Registration Statement, the prospectus supplement relating to such Company Debt Securities and the Company Indenture and to authorize the execution, delivery and performance of a supplemental



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indenture or officer’s certificate establishing the form and terms of such series of Company Debt Securities as contemplated by the Company Indenture; (v) a supplemental indenture or officer’s certificate establishing the form and terms of such series of Company Debt Securities shall have been duly executed and delivered by the Company and the Trustee (in the case of such a supplemental indenture) or by a duly authorized officer of the Company (in the case of such an officer’s certificate), in each case in accordance with the provisions of the Charter, the Bylaws, resolutions of the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof and the Company Indenture; and (vi) the certificates evidencing the Company Debt Securities of such series shall have been duly executed and delivered by the Company, authenticated by the Trustee and issued, all in accordance with the Charter, the Bylaws, resolutions of the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof, the Company Indenture and the supplemental indenture or officer’s certificate, as the case may be, establishing the form and terms of the Company Debt Securities of such series, and shall have been duly delivered in accordance with the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement to the purchasers thereof against payment of the agreed consideration therefor.
6.     With respect to an offering of Operating Partnership Debt Securities of any series and a related Guarantee, each covered by the Registration Statement, the Operating Partnership Debt Securities of such series and the related Guarantee will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Operating Partnership and the Company, respectively when: (i) the Registration Statement, as finally amended (including any necessary post-effective amendments), shall have become effective under the Securities Act; (ii) a prospectus supplement with respect to such series of Operating Partnership Debt Securities and the Guarantee shall have been filed with the SEC in compliance with the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder; (iii) all necessary partnership action shall have been taken by the Operating Partnership in accordance with the Certificate of Limited Partnership and the Partnership Agreement and all necessary corporate action shall have been taken by the Company in accordance with the Charter and Bylaws to authorize the form, terms, execution, delivery, performance, issuance and sale of such series of Operating Partnership Debt Securities and the Guarantee, as applicable, as contemplated by the Registration Statement, the prospectus supplement relating to such Operating Partnership Debt Securities and the Guarantee and the Operating Partnership Indenture and to authorize the execution, delivery and performance of a supplemental indenture or officer’s certificate establishing the form and terms of such series of Operating Partnership Debt Securities as contemplated by the Operating Partnership Indenture; (iv) a supplemental indenture or officer’s certificate establishing the form and terms of such series of Operating Partnership Debt Securities shall have been duly executed and delivered by the Operating Partnership and the Trustee (in the case of such a supplemental indenture) or by a duly authorized officer of the Operating Partnership (in the case of such an officer’s certificate), in each case in accordance with the provisions of the Partnership Agreement, resolutions of the general partner of the Operating Partnership and the Operating Partnership Indenture; and (v) the certificates evidencing the Operating Partnership Debt Securities of such series shall have been duly



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executed and delivered by the Operating Partnership, authenticated by the Trustee and issued, all in accordance with the Partnership Agreement, resolutions of the general partner of the Operating Partnership, the Operating Partnership Indenture and the supplemental indenture or officer’s certificate, as the case may be, establishing the form and terms of the Operating Partnership Debt Securities of such series, and shall have been duly delivered in accordance with the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement to the purchasers thereof against payment of the agreed consideration therefor.
Our opinions are subject to bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium, fraudulent conveyance, fraudulent transfer and other similar laws relating to or affecting creditors’ rights generally and to general equitable principles (regardless of whether considered in a proceeding in equity or at law), including concepts of commercial reasonableness, good faith and fair dealing and the possible unavailability of specific performance or injunctive relief. Our opinions are also subject to (i) provisions of law which may require that a judgment for money damages rendered by a court in the United States of America be expressed only in United States dollars, (ii) requirements that a claim with respect to any Securities or other obligations that are denominated or payable other than in United States dollars (or a judgment denominated or payable other than in United States dollars in respect of such claim) be converted into United States dollars at a rate of exchange prevailing on a date determined pursuant to applicable law and (iii) governmental authority to limit, delay or prohibit the making of payments outside of the United States of America or in a foreign currency.
For the purposes of this opinion letter, we have assumed that, at the time of the issuance, sale and delivery of any of the Securities:
(i) the Securities being offered will be issued and sold as contemplated in the Registration Statement and the prospectus supplement relating thereto;
(ii) the execution, delivery and performance by the Company, for itself or as the sole member of the sole general partner of the Operating Partnership, of the applicable Transaction Documents and the issuance, sale, exercise (if applicable) and delivery of the Securities (including, without limitation, any Underlying Preferred Stock, Warrant Securities, Rights Securities or Units Securities) will not (A) contravene or violate the applicable Governing Documents, resolutions adopted by the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof with respect to the Company or the Operating Partnership, as applicable, the laws of the State of Maryland or the Delaware Revised Uniform Limited Partnership Act (“DRULPA”), as applicable, or any other law, rule or regulation applicable to the Company or the Operating Partnership, (B) result in a default under or breach of, or create a lien under, any agreement or instrument binding upon the Company or the Operating Partnership, as applicable, or any order, judgment or decree of any court or governmental authority applicable to the Company or the Operating Partnership, or (C) require any authorization, approval or other action by, or notice to



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or filing with, any court or governmental authority (other than such authorizations, approvals, actions, notices or filings which shall have been obtained or made, as the case may be, and which shall be in full force and effect);
(iii) the authorization thereof by the Company or the Operating Partnership, as the case may be, will not have been modified or rescinded, and there will not have occurred any change in law affecting the validity, legally binding character or enforceability thereof;
(iv) the Governing Documents, as currently in effect, will not have been modified or amended and will be in full force and effect;
(v) the form, terms, execution, delivery and performance of the applicable Transaction Documents and the issuance, sale, exercise (if applicable) and delivery of the Securities (including, without limitation, any Underlying Preferred Stock, Warrant Securities, Rights Securities or Units Securities and any issuance, sale or delivery upon exercise thereof of Warrants or Rights, as applicable) shall have been duly authorized and approved by the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof or by duly authorized officers of the Company, for itself or as the sole member of the sole general partner of the Operating Partnership, acting pursuant to authority delegated to such officers by the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof, all in accordance with, and within any parameters or limitations established by, the applicable Governing Documents, any applicable resolutions of the Board or any duly authorized committee thereof with respect to the Company or the Operating Partnership, as applicable, the applicable Transaction Documents, the laws of the State of Maryland, the DRULPA, as applicable, and any other applicable laws, rules or regulations;
(vi) the terms of such Securities will be accurately reflected in the applicable Transaction Documents and any other instruments, agreements and certificates governing, evidencing or establishing the forms and terms of such Securities, and the issuance, sale and delivery of such Securities (including, without limitation, any Underlying Preferred Stock, Warrant Securities, Rights Securities or Units Securities and any issuance, sale or delivery thereof upon exercise of Warrants or Rights) will not be subject to any preemptive or other similar rights; and
(vii) the Company will have a number of authorized and unissued shares of Common Stock and Preferred Stock sufficient to provide for the issuance of all shares of Common Stock and Preferred Stock (including, without limitation, Underlying Preferred Stock) issued pursuant to the transactions contemplated above and issuable upon exercise of any Warrants or Rights.
We have further assumed that the Transaction Documents (other than any certificate evidencing shares of Common Stock or Preferred Stock) will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.



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With respect to each Transaction Document and other instrument or agreement referred to in or otherwise relevant to the opinions set forth herein (each, an “Instrument”), we have assumed, to the extent relevant to the opinions set forth herein, that (i) each party to such Instrument (if not a natural person) was duly organized or formed, as the case may be, and at all relevant times was, is and will be validly existing and in good standing under the laws of its jurisdiction of organization or formation, as the case may be, and at all relevant times had, has and will have full right, power and authority to execute, deliver and perform its obligations under such Instrument; (ii) such Instrument has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by each party thereto; and (iii) such Instrument at all relevant times was, is and will be a valid, binding and enforceable agreement or obligation, as the case may be, of, each party thereto; provided, that we make no assumption in clause (iii) insofar as such assumption relates to the Company or the Operating Partnership and is expressly covered by our opinions set forth herein.
This opinion letter is limited to the DRULPA and the laws of the State of New York (excluding the securities laws, the blue sky laws, the real estate syndication laws or the municipal laws or the laws, rules or regulations of any local agencies or governmental authorities of or within the State of New York). We express no opinion as to the laws, rules or regulations of any other jurisdiction, including, without limitation, the federal laws of the United States of America or any state securities or blue sky laws. Various issues pertaining to Maryland law, including the validity of the Common Stock and Preferred Stock and the due authorization of the Securities by the Company, are addressed in the opinion of Venable LLP, which has been separately provided to you. We express no opinion with respect to those matters herein, and to the extent elements of those opinions are necessary to the conclusions expressed herein, we have, with your consent, assumed such matters.
We hereby consent to the filing of this opinion letter as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and to the reference to our Firm under the caption “Legal Matters” in the prospectus constituting part of the Registration Statement. In giving such consent, we do not thereby admit that we are in the category of persons whose consent is required under Section 7 of the Securities Act.
Very truly yours,
/s/ Sidley Austin LLP

Exhibit 8.1
sidleylogo.jpg
SIDLEY AUSTIN LLP
787 SEVENTH AVENUE
NEW YORK, NY 10019
+1 212 839 5300
+1 212 839 5599 FAX
AMERICA l ASIA PACIFIC l EUROPE
June 17, 2024
Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc.
Essential Properties, L.P.
902 Carnegie Center Blvd., Suite 520
Princeton, New Jersey 08540
Re:    Registration Statement on Form S-3
Ladies and Gentlemen:
We have acted as special counsel to Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc., a Maryland corporation (the “Company”) and Essential Properties, L.P., a Delaware limited partnership (the “Operating Partnership”) in connection with the registration statement on Form S-3 (the “Registration Statement”) being filed by the Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) in connection with the registration of common stock of the Company, $0.01 par value per share (“Common Stock”), preferred stock of the Company, $0.01 par value per share (“Preferred Stock”), debt securities (“Company Debt Securities”), depositary shares, warrants, rights and units of the Company, debt securities of the Operating Partnership (“Operating Partnership Debt Securities” and, together with Company Debt Securities, “Debt Securities”) and guarantees by the Company of Operating Partnership Debt Securities (the “Guarantees”) that may be issued and sold from time to time, as set forth in the prospectus forming part of the Registration Statement (the “Prospectus”), and as to be set forth in one or more supplements to the Prospectus.
We inform you that any U.S. federal tax advice contained in this opinion is limited to the one or more U.S. federal tax issues addressed in the opinion. Additional issues may exist that could affect the U.S. federal tax treatment of the transaction that is the subject of this opinion and this opinion does not consider or provide a conclusion with respect to any additional issues.
In connection with this opinion, we have examined originals or copies, certified or otherwise identified to our satisfaction, of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and such other documentation and information provided to us by the Company or the Operating Partnership as we have deemed necessary or appropriate as a basis for the opinion set forth herein. In addition, we are relying upon a certificate containing certain factual statements, factual representations and covenants of an officer of the Company dated the date hereof (the “Officer’s Certificate”) relating to, among other things, the actual and proposed operations of the Company and the entities in which it holds, or has held, a direct or indirect interest (collectively, the “Company Group”). For purposes of our opinion, we have not independently verified the facts, statements, representations and covenants set forth in the Officer’s Certificate, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, or in any other document. In particular, we note that
SIDLEY AUSTIN (NY) LLP IS A DELAWARE LIMITED LIABILITY PARTNERSHIP DOING BUSINESS AS SIDLEY AUSTIN LLP AND PRACTICING IN AFFILIATION WITH OTHER SIDLEY AUSTIN PARTNERSHIPS.


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the Company Group may engage in transactions in connection with which we have not provided legal advice, and have not reviewed, and of which we may be unaware. Consequently, we have relied on the Company’s representation that the facts, statements, representations, and covenants presented in the Officer’s Certificate, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, and other documents, or otherwise furnished to us, accurately and completely describe all material facts relevant to our opinion. We have assumed that all such facts, statements, representations and covenants are true without regard to any qualification as to knowledge, belief, intent, or materiality. Our opinion is conditioned on the continuing accuracy and completeness of such facts, statements, representations and covenants. Any material change or inaccuracy in the facts, statements, representations, and covenants referred to, set forth, or assumed herein or in the Officer’s Certificate may affect our conclusions set forth herein.
In our review of certain documents in connection with our opinion as expressed below, we have assumed the legal capacity of all natural persons, the genuineness of all signatures, the authenticity of all documents submitted to us as originals, the conformity to original documents of all documents submitted to us as certified, conformed, photostatic, or electronic copies, and the authenticity of the originals of such copies. Where documents have been provided to us in draft form, we have assumed that the final executed versions of such documents will not differ materially from such drafts.
Our opinion is also based on the correctness of the following assumptions: (i) the Company and each of the entities comprising the Company Group have been and will continue to be operated in accordance with the laws of the jurisdictions in which it was formed and in the manner described in the relevant organizational documents, (ii) there will be no changes in the applicable laws of the State of Maryland or of any other jurisdiction under the laws of which any of the entities comprising the Company Group have been formed, which changes could have a material effect on the conclusions set forth herein, and (iii) each of the written agreements to which the Company Group is a party has been and will be implemented, construed and enforced in accordance with its terms.
In rendering our opinion, we have considered and relied upon the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (the “Code”), the regulations promulgated thereunder (“Regulations”), administrative rulings and other Treasury interpretations of the Code and the Regulations by the courts and the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”), all as they exist at the date hereof. It should be noted that the Code, Regulations, judicial decisions, and administrative interpretations are subject to change at any time and, in some circumstances, with retroactive effect. A material change that is made after the date hereof in any of the foregoing bases for our opinion could affect our conclusions set forth herein. In this regard, an opinion of counsel with respect to an issue represents counsel’s best judgment as to the outcome on the merits with respect to such issue, is not binding on the IRS or the courts, and is not a guarantee that the IRS will not assert a contrary position



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with respect to such issue or that a court will not sustain such a position if asserted by the IRS. This opinion shall not be construed as or deemed to be a guaranty or insuring agreement.
We express no opinion as to the laws of any jurisdiction other than the federal laws of the United States. We express no opinion on any issue relating to the Company, the Company Group or any investment therein, other than as expressly stated herein.
Based on and subject to the foregoing, we are of the opinion that:
1.    Commencing with the Company’s taxable year ending on December 31, 2018, the Company has been organized in conformity with the requirements for qualification as a real estate investment trust under the Code (a “REIT”), and its current and proposed method of operation will enable it to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT. In addition, the Company’s qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon its ability to meet, through actual operating results, certain requirements relating to the sources of its income, the nature of its assets, its distribution levels and the diversity of its stock ownership, and various other qualification tests imposed under the Code, the results of which are not reviewed by us. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the actual results of the Company’s operations for any one taxable year will satisfy the requirements for taxation as a REIT.
2.    Although the discussions set forth in the Prospectus under the heading “Federal Income Tax Considerations” do not purport to discuss all possible United States federal income tax consequences of the ownership and disposition of Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Company Debt Securities, depositary shares, warrants, rights and units of the Company and Operating Partnership Debt Securities and Guarantees, such discussions, though general in nature, constitute, in all material respects, a fair and accurate summary under current law of the material United States federal income tax consequences of our qualification as a REIT and the ownership and disposition of Common Stock, Preferred Stock and Debt Securities, subject to the qualifications set forth therein. The United States federal income tax consequences of the ownership and disposition of Common Stock, Preferred Stock and Debt Securities by a holder of such stock or debt securities will depend upon that holder’s particular situation, and we express no opinion as to the completeness of the discussions set forth in the Prospectus under the heading “Federal Income Tax Considerations” as applied to any particular holder.
This opinion has been prepared for you in connection with the filing of the Registration Statement. We hereby consent to the filing of this opinion as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and to the references to our firm name in the Prospectus in connection with the references to this opinion and the material United States federal income tax consequences of the ownership and disposition of Common Stock, Preferred Stock and Debt Securities. This consent is not to be construed as an admission that we are a party whose consent is required to be filed with the Registration Statement under Section 7 of the Securities Act or the rules and regulations of the Commission promulgated thereunder. This opinion is expressed as of the date hereof, and



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we are under no obligation to supplement or revise our opinion to reflect any legal developments or factual matters arising subsequent to the date hereof, or the impact of any information, document, certificate, record, statement, representation, covenant, or assumption relied upon herein that becomes incorrect or untrue.
Very truly yours,
/s/ Sidley Austin LLP

Exhibit 22.1
The following subsidiary of Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc. (“Essential”) will be the issuer of debt securities under the indenture entered into among Essential, as parent guarantor, and the subsidiary listed below.
Subsidiary RegistrantIssuer
Essential Properties, L.P.Issuer

Exhibit 23.1
CONSENT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
We have issued our reports dated February 14, 2024 with respect to the consolidated financial statements and internal control over financial reporting of Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc. included in the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023, which are incorporated by reference in this Registration Statement. We consent to the incorporation by reference of the aforementioned reports in this Registration Statement, and to the use of our name as it appears under the caption “Experts.”
/s/ GRANT THORNTON LLP
New York, New York
June 17, 2024

Exhibit 25.1
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
__________________________
FORM T-1
STATEMENT OF ELIGIBILITY UNDER
THE TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 OF A
CORPORATION DESIGNATED TO ACT AS TRUSTEE
Check if an Application to Determine Eligibility of
a Trustee Pursuant to Section 305(b)(2) o
_______________________________________________________
U.S. BANK TRUST COMPANY, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION
(Exact name of Trustee as specified in its charter)
91-1821036
I.R.S. Employer Identification No.
800 Nicollet Mall
Minneapolis, Minnesota
55402
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Paul O’Brien
U.S. Bank Trust Company, National Association
333 Thornall Street
Edison, NJ 08837
(732) 321-2517
(Name, address and telephone number of agent for service)
Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc.
Essential Properties, L.P.
(Issuer with respect to the Securities)
Maryland (Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc.)
Delaware (Essential Properties, L.P.)

82-4005693
83-3628345
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
902 Carnegie Center Boulevard, Suite 520 Princeton, New Jersey
08540
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)(Zip Code)
Debt Securities
Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc Debt Securities
Essential Properties, L.P. Debt Securities



FORM T-1
Item 1.GENERAL INFORMATION. Furnish the following information as to the Trustee.
a)    Name and address of each examining or supervising authority to which it is subject.
Comptroller of the Currency
Washington, D.C.
b)    Whether it is authorized to exercise corporate trust powers.
Yes
Item 2.AFFILIATIONS WITH THE OBLIGOR. If the obligor is an affiliate of the Trustee, describe each such affiliation.
None
Items 3-15    Items 3-15 are not applicable because to the best of the Trustee's knowledge, the obligor is not in default under any Indenture for which the Trustee acts as Trustee.
Item 16.LIST OF EXHIBITS: List below all exhibits filed as a part of this statement of eligibility and qualification.
1.A copy of the Articles of Association of the Trustee, attached as Exhibit 1.
2.A copy of the certificate of authority of the Trustee to commence business, attached as Exhibit 2.
3.A copy of the authorization of the Trustee to exercise corporate trust powers, included as Exhibit 2.
4.A copy of the existing bylaws of the Trustee, attached as Exhibit 4.
5.A copy of each Indenture referred to in Item 4. Not applicable.
6.The consent of the Trustee required by Section 321(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, attached as Exhibit 6.
7.Report of Condition of the Trustee as of March 31, 2024, published pursuant to law or the requirements of its supervising or examining authority, attached as Exhibit 7.



SIGNATURE
Pursuant to the requirements of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, the Trustee, U.S. BANK TRUST COMPANY, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, a national banking association organized and existing under the laws of the United States of America, has duly caused this statement of eligibility and qualification to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, all in the Township of Edison, State of New Jersey on the 17th of May, 2024.
By:/s/ Paul O’Brien
Paul O’Brien
Vice President



Exhibit 1
ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION
OF
U. S. BANK TRUST COMPANY, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION
For the purpose of organizing an association (the “Association”) to perform any lawful activities of national banks, the undersigned enter into the following Articles of Association:
FIRST. The title of this Association shall be U. S. Bank Trust Company, National Association.
SECOND. The main office of the Association shall be in the city of Portland, county of Multnomah, state of Oregon. The business of the Association will be limited to fiduciary powers and the support of activities incidental to the exercise of those powers. The Association may not expand or alter its business beyond that stated in this article without the prior approval of the Comptroller of the Currency.
THIRD. The board of directors of the Association shall consist of not less than five nor more than twenty-five persons, the exact number to be fixed and determined from time to time by resolution of a majority of the full board of directors or by resolution of a majority of the shareholders at any annual or special meeting thereof. Each director shall own common or preferred stock of the Association or of a holding company owning the Association, with an aggregate par, fair market, or equity value of not less than $1,000, as of either (i) the date of purchase, (ii) the date the person became a director, or (iii) the date of that person's most recent election to the board of directors, whichever is more recent. Any combination of common or preferred stock of the Association or holding company may be used.
Any vacancy in the board of directors may be filled by action of a majority of the remaining directors between meetings of shareholders. The board of directors may increase the number of directors up to the maximum permitted by law. Terms of directors, including directors selected to fill vacancies, shall expire at the next regular meeting of shareholders at which directors are elected, unless the directors resign or are removed from office. Despite the expiration of a director's term, the director shall continue to serve until his or her successor is elected and qualified or until there is a decrease in the number of directors and his or her position is eliminated.
Honorary or advisory members of the board of directors, without voting power or power of final decision in matters concerning the business of the Association, may be appointed by resolution of a majority of the full board of directors, or by resolution of shareholders at any annual or special meeting. Honorary or advisory directors shall not be counted to determined the number of directors of the Association or the presence of a quorum in connection with any board action, and shall not be required to own qualifying shares.
FOURTH. There shall be an annual meeting of the shareholders to elect directors and transact whatever other business may be brought before the meeting. It shall be held at the main office or any other convenient place the board of directors may designate, on the day of each year
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specified therefor in the Bylaws, or if that day falls on a legal holiday in the state in which the Association is located, on the next following banking day. If no election is held on the day fixed or in the event of a legal holiday on the following banking day, an election may be held on any subsequent day within 60 days of the day fixed, to be designated by the board of directors, or, if the directors fail to fix the day, by shareholders representing two-thirds of the shares issued and outstanding. In all cases, at least 10 days’ advance notice of the meeting shall be given to the shareholders by first-class mail.
In all elections of directors, the number of votes each common shareholder may cast will be determined by multiplying the number of shares he or she owns by the number of directors to be elected. Those votes may be cumulated and cast for a single candidate or may be distributed among two or more candidates in the manner selected by the shareholder. On all other questions, each common shareholder shall be entitled to one vote for each share of stock held by him or her.
A director may resign at any time by delivering written notice to the board of directors, its chairperson, or to the Association, which resignation shall be effective when the notice is delivered unless the notice specifies a later effective date.
A director may be removed by the shareholders at a meeting called to remove him or her, when notice of the meeting stating that the purpose or one of the purposes is to remove him or her is provided, if there is a failure to fulfill one of the affirmative requirements for qualification, or for cause; provided, however, that a director may not be removed if the number of votes sufficient to elect him or her under cumulative voting is voted against his or her removal.
FIFTH. The authorized amount of capital stock of the Association shall be 1,000,000 shares of common stock of the par value of ten dollars ($10) each; but said capital stock may be increased or decreased from time to time, according to the provisions of the laws of the United States. The Association shall have only one class of capital stock.
No holder of shares of the capital stock of any class of the Association shall have any preemptive or preferential right of subscription to any shares of any class of stock of the Association, whether now or hereafter authorized, or to any obligations convertible into stock of the Association, issued, or sold, nor any right of subscription to any thereof other than such, if any, as the board of directors, in its discretion, may from time to time determine and at such price as the board of directors may from time to time fix.
Transfers of the Association's stock are subject to the prior written approval of a federal depository institution regulatory agency. If no other agency approval is required, the approval of the Comptroller of the Currency must be obtained prior to any such transfers.
Unless otherwise specified in the Articles of Association or required by law, (1) all matters requiring shareholder action, including amendments to the Articles of Association must be approved by shareholders owning a majority voting interest in the outstanding voting stock, and (2) each shareholder shall be entitled to one vote per share.
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Unless otherwise specified in the Articles of Association or required by law, all shares of voting stock shall be voted together as a class, on any matters requiring shareholder approval.
Unless otherwise provided in the Bylaws, the record date for determining shareholders entitled to notice of and to vote at any meeting is the close of business on the day before the first notice is mailed or otherwise sent to the shareholders, provided that in no event may a record date be more than 70 days before the meeting.
The Association, at any time and from time to time, may authorize and issue debt obligations, whether subordinated, without the approval of the shareholders. Obligations classified as debt, whether subordinated, which may be issued by the Association without the approval of shareholders, do not carry voting rights on any issue, including an increase or decrease in the aggregate number of the securities, or the exchange or reclassification of all or part of securities into securities of another class or series.
SIXTH. The board of directors shall appoint one of its members president of this Association and one of its members chairperson of the board and shall have the power to appoint one or more vice presidents, a secretary who shall keep minutes of the directors' and shareholders' meetings and be responsible for authenticating the records of the Association, and such other officers and employees as may be required to transact the business of this Association. A duly appointed officer may appoint one or more officers or assistant officers if authorized by the board of directors in accordance with the Bylaws.
The board of directors shall have the power to:
(1)    Define the duties of the officers, employees, and agents of the Association.
(2)    Delegate the performance of its duties, but not the responsibility for its duties, to the officers, employees, and agents of the Association.
(3)    Fix the compensation and enter employment contracts with its officers and employees upon reasonable terms and conditions consistent with applicable law.
(4)    Dismiss officers and employees.
(5)    Require bonds from officers and employees and to fix the penalty thereof.
(6)    Ratify written policies authorized by the Association's management or committees of the board.
(7)    Regulate the manner any increase or decrease of the capital of the Association shall be made; provided that nothing herein shall restrict the power of shareholders to increase or decrease the capital of the Association in accordance with law, and nothing shall raise or lower from two-thirds the percentage required for shareholder approval to increase or reduce the capital.
(8)    Manage and administer the business and affairs of the Association.
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(9)    Adopt initial Bylaws, not inconsistent with law or the Articles of Association, for managing the business and regulating the affairs of the Association.
(10)    Amend or repeal Bylaws, except to the extent that the Articles of Association reserve this power in whole or in part to the shareholders.
(11)    Make contracts.
(12)    Generally perform all acts that are legal for a board of directors to perform.
SEVENTH. The board of directors shall have the power to change the location of the main office to any authorized branch within the limits of the city of Portland, Oregon, without the approval of the shareholders, or with a vote of shareholders owning two-thirds of the stock of the Association for a location outside such limits and upon receipt of a certificate of approval from the Comptroller of the Currency, to any other location within or outside the limits of the city of Portland, Oregon, but not more than thirty miles beyond such limits. The board of directors shall have the power to establish or change the location of any office or offices of the Association to any other location permitted under applicable law, without approval of shareholders, subject to approval by the Comptroller of the Currency.
EIGHTH. The corporate existence of this Association shall continue until termination according to the laws of the United States.
NINTH. The board of directors of the Association, or any shareholder owning, in the aggregate, not less than 25 percent of the stock of the Association, may call a special meeting of shareholders at any time. Unless otherwise provided by the Bylaws or the laws of the United States, or waived by shareholders, a notice of the time, place, and purpose of every annual and special meeting of the shareholders shall be given by first-class mail, postage prepaid, mailed at least 10, and no more than 60, days prior to the date of the meeting to each shareholder of record at his/her address as shown upon the books of the Association. Unless otherwise provided by the Bylaws, any action requiring approval of shareholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting.
TENTH. These Articles of Association may be amended at any regular or special meeting of the shareholders by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the stock of the Association, unless the vote of the holders of a greater amount of stock is required by law, and in that case by the vote of the holders of such greater amount; provided, that the scope of the Association's activities and services may not be expanded without the prior written approval of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Association's board of directors may propose one or more amendments to the Articles of Association for submission to the shareholders.
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In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands this 11th of June, 1997.
/s/ Jeffrey T. Grubb
Jeffrey T. Grubb
/s/ Robert D. Sznewajs
Robert D. Sznewajs
/s/ Dwight V. Board
Dwight V. Board
/s/ P. K. Chatterjee
P. K. Chatterjee
/s/ Robert Lane
Robert Lane



Exhibit 2
exhibit2511a.jpg
Office of the Comptroller of the Currency
Washington, DC 20219
CERTIFICATE OF CORPORATE EXISTENCE AND FIDUCIARY POWERS
I, Michael J. Hsu, Acting Comptroller of the Currency, do hereby certify that:
1.The Comptroller of the Currency, pursuant to Revised Statutes 324, et seq, as amended, and 12 USC 1, et seq, as amended, has possession, custody, and control of all records pertaining to the chartering, regulation, and supervision of all national banking associations.
2. "U.S. Bank Trust National Association," Wilmington, Delaware (Charter No. 24090), is a national banking association formed under the laws of the United States and is authorized thereunder to transact the business of banking and exercise fiduciary powers on the date of this certificate.
IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF, today, February 20, 2024, I have hereunto subscribed my name and caused my seal of office to be affixed to these presents at the U.S. Department of the Treasury, in the City of Washington, District of Columbia.
/s/ Michael J. Hsu
Acting Comptroller of the Currency
exhibit2512a.jpg
2024-00560-C



Exhibit 4
U.S. BANK TRUST COMPANY, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION
AMENDED AND RESTATED BYLAWS
ARTICLE I
Meetings of Shareholders
Section 1.1. Annual Meeting. The annual meeting of the shareholders, for the election of directors and the transaction of any other proper business, shall be held at a time and place as the Chairman or President may designate. Notice of such meeting shall be given not less than ten (10) days or more than sixty (60) days prior to the date thereof, to each shareholder of the Association, unless the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (the “OCC”) determines that an emergency circumstance exists. In accordance with applicable law, the sole shareholder of the Association is permitted to waive notice of the meeting. If, for any reason, an election of directors is not made on the designated day, the election shall be held on some subsequent day, as soon thereafter as practicable, with prior notice thereof. Failure to hold an annual meeting as required by these Bylaws shall not affect the validity of any corporate action or work a forfeiture or dissolution of the Association.
Section 1.2. Special Meetings. Except as otherwise specially provided by law, special meetings of the shareholders may be called for any purpose, at any time by a majority of the board of directors (the “Board”), or by any shareholder or group of shareholders owning at least ten percent of the outstanding stock. Every such special meeting, unless otherwise provided by law, shall be called upon not less than ten (10) days nor more than sixty (60) days prior notice stating the purpose of the meeting.
Section 1.3. Nominations for Directors. Nominations for election to the Board may be made by the Board or by any shareholder.
Section 1.4. Proxies. Shareholders may vote at any meeting of the shareholders by proxies duly authorized in writing. Proxies shall be valid only for one meeting and any adjournments of such meeting and shall be filed with the records of the meeting.
Section 1.5. Record Date. The record date for determining shareholders entitled to notice and to vote at any meeting will be thirty days before the date of such meeting, unless otherwise determined by the Board.
Section 1.6. Quorum and Voting. A majority of the outstanding capital stock, represented in person or by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at any meeting of shareholders, unless otherwise provided by law, but less than a quorum may adjourn any meeting, from time to time, and the meeting may be held as adjourned without further notice. A majority of the votes cast shall decide every question or matter submitted to the shareholders at any meeting, unless otherwise provided by law or by the Articles of Association.



Section 1.7. Inspectors. The Board may, and in the event of its failure so to do, the Chairman of the Board may appoint Inspectors of Election who shall determine the presence of quorum, the validity of proxies, and the results of all elections and all other matters voted upon by shareholders at all annual and special meetings of shareholders.
Section 1.8. Waiver and Consent. The shareholders may act without notice or a meeting by a unanimous written consent by all shareholders.
Section 1.9. Remote Meetings. The Board shall have the right to determine that a shareholder meeting not be held at a place, but instead be held solely by means of remote communication in the manner and to the extent permitted by the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware.
ARTICLE II
Directors
Section 2.1. Board of Directors. The Board shall have the power to manage and administer the business and affairs of the Association. Except as expressly limited by law, all corporate powers of the Association shall be vested in and may be exercised by the Board.
Section 2.2. Term of Office. The directors of this Association shall hold office for one year and until their successors are duly elected and qualified, or until their earlier resignation or removal.
Section 2.3. Powers. In addition to the foregoing, the Board shall have and may exercise all of the powers granted to or conferred upon it by the Articles of Association, the Bylaws and by law.
Section 2.4. Number. As provided in the Articles of Association, the Board of this Association shall consist of no less than five nor more than twenty-five members, unless the OCC has exempted the Association from the twenty-five- member limit. The Board shall consist of a number of members to be fixed and determined from time to time by resolution of the Board or the shareholders at any meeting thereof, in accordance with the Articles of Association. Between meetings of the shareholders held for the purpose of electing directors, the Board by a majority vote of the full Board may increase the size of the Board but not to more than a total of twenty-five directors, and fill any vacancy so created in the Board; provided that the Board may increase the number of directors only by up to two directors, when the number of directors last elected by shareholders was fifteen or fewer, and by up to four directors, when the number of directors last elected by shareholders was sixteen or more. Each director shall own a qualifying equity interest in the Association or a company that has control of the Association in each case as required by applicable law. Each director shall own such qualifying equity interest in his or her own right and meet any minimum threshold ownership required by applicable law.
Section 2.5. Organization Meeting. The newly elected Board shall meet for the purpose of organizing the new Board and electing and appointing such officers of the Association as may be appropriate. Such meeting shall be held on the day of the election or as soon thereafter as



practicable, and, in any event, within thirty days thereafter, at such time and place as the Chairman or President may designate. If, at the time fixed for such meeting, there shall not be a quorum present, the directors present may adjourn the meeting until a quorum is obtained.
Section 2.6. Regular Meetings. The regular meetings of the Board shall be held, without notice, as the Chairman or President may designate and deem suitable.
Section 2.7. Special Meetings. Special meetings of the Board may be called at any time, at any place and for any purpose by the Chairman of the Board or the President of the Association, or upon the request of a majority of the entire Board. Notice of every special meeting of the Board shall be given to the directors at their usual places of business, or at such other addresses as shall have been furnished by them for the purpose. Such notice shall be given at least twelve hours (three hours if meeting is to be conducted by conference telephone) before the meeting by telephone or by being personally delivered, mailed, or electronically delivered. Such notice need not include a statement of the business to be transacted at, or the purpose of, any such meeting.
Section 2.8. Quorum and Necessary Vote. A majority of the directors shall constitute a quorum at any meeting of the Board, except when otherwise provided by law; but less than a quorum may adjourn any meeting, from time to time, and the meeting may be held as adjourned without further notice. Unless otherwise provided by law or the Articles or Bylaws of this Association, once a quorum is established, any act by a majority of those directors present and voting shall be the act of the Board.
Section 2.9. Written Consent. Except as otherwise required by applicable laws and regulations, the Board may act without a meeting by a unanimous written consent by all directors, to be filed with the Secretary of the Association as part of the corporate records.
Section 2.10. Remote Meetings. Members of the Board, or of any committee thereof, may participate in a meeting of such Board or committee by means of conference telephone, video or similar communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other and such participation shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.
Section 2.11. Vacancies. When any vacancy occurs among the directors, the remaining members of the Board may appoint a director to fill such vacancy at any regular meeting of the Board, or at a special meeting called for that purpose.
ARTICLE III
Committees
Section 3.1. Advisory Board of Directors. The Board may appoint persons, who need not be directors, to serve as advisory directors on an advisory board of directors established with respect to the business affairs of either this Association alone or the business affairs of a group of affiliated organizations of which this Association is one. Advisory directors shall have such powers and duties as may be determined by the Board, provided, that the Board's responsibility for the business and affairs of this Association shall in no respect be delegated or diminished.



Section 3.2. Trust Audit Committee. At least once during each calendar year, the Association shall arrange for a suitable audit (by internal or external auditors) of all significant fiduciary activities under the direction of its trust audit committee, a function that will be fulfilled by the Audit Committee of the financial holding company that is the ultimate parent of this Association. The Association shall note the results of the audit (including significant actions taken as a result of the audit) in the minutes of the Board. In lieu of annual audits, the Association may adopt a continuous audit system in accordance with 12 C.F.R. § 9.9(b).
The Audit Committee of the financial holding company that is the ultimate parent of this Association, fulfilling the function of the trust audit committee:
(1)    Must not include any officers of the Association or an affiliate who participate significantly in the administration of the Association’s fiduciary activities; and
(2)    Must consist of a majority of members who are not also members of any committee to which the Board has delegated power to manage and control the fiduciary activities of the Association.
Section 3.3. Executive Committee. The Board may appoint an Executive Committee which shall consist of at least three directors and which shall have, and may exercise, to the extent permitted by applicable law, all the powers of the Board between meetings of the Board or otherwise when the Board is not meeting.
Section 3.4. Trust Management Committee. The Board of this Association shall appoint a Trust Management Committee to provide oversight of the fiduciary activities of the Association. The Trust Management Committee shall determine policies governing fiduciary activities. The Trust Management Committee or such sub-committees, officers or others as may be duly designated by the Trust Management Committee shall oversee the processes related to fiduciary activities to assure conformity with fiduciary policies it establishes, including ratifying the acceptance and the closing out or relinquishment of all trusts. The Trust Management Committee will provide regular reports of its activities to the Board.
Section 3.5. Other Committees. The Board may appoint, from time to time, committees of one or more persons who need not be directors, for such purposes and with such powers as the Board may determine; however, the Board will not delegate to any committee any powers or responsibilities that it is prohibited from delegating under any law or regulation. In addition, either the Chairman or the President may appoint, from time to time, committees of one or more officers, employees, agents or other persons, for such purposes and with such powers as either the Chairman or the President deems appropriate and proper. Whether appointed by the Board, the Chairman, or the President, any such committee shall at all times be subject to the direction and control of the Board.
Section 3.6. Meetings, Minutes and Rules. An advisory board of directors and/or committee shall meet as necessary in consideration of the purpose of the advisory board of directors or committee, and shall maintain minutes in sufficient detail to indicate actions taken or recommendations made; unless required by the members, discussions, votes or other specific



details need not be reported. An advisory board of directors or a committee may, in consideration of its purpose, adopt its own rules for the exercise of any of its functions or authority.
ARTICLE IV
Officers
Section 4.1. Chairman of the Board. The Board may appoint one of its members to be Chairman of the Board to serve at the pleasure of the Board. The Chairman shall supervise the carrying out of the policies adopted or approved by the Board; shall have general executive powers, as well as the specific powers conferred by these Bylaws; and shall also have and may exercise such powers and duties as from time to time may be conferred upon or assigned by the Board.
Section 4.2. President. The Board may appoint one of its members to be President of the Association. In the absence of the Chairman, the President shall preside at any meeting of the Board. The President shall have general executive powers, and shall have and may exercise any and all other powers and duties pertaining by law, regulation or practice, to the office of President, or imposed by these Bylaws. The President shall also have and may exercise such powers and duties as from time to time may be conferred or assigned by the Board.
Section 4.3. Vice President. The Board may appoint one or more Vice Presidents who shall have such powers and duties as may be assigned by the Board and to perform the duties of the President on those occasions when the President is absent, including presiding at any meeting of the Board in the absence of both the Chairman and President.
Section 4.4. Secretary. The Board shall appoint a Secretary, or other designated officer who shall be Secretary of the Board and of the Association, and shall keep accurate minutes of all meetings. The Secretary shall attend to the giving of all notices required by these Bylaws to be given; shall be custodian of the corporate seal, records, documents and papers of the Association; shall provide for the keeping of proper records of all transactions of the Association; shall, upon request, authenticate any records of the Association; shall have and may exercise any and all other powers and duties pertaining by law, regulation or practice, to the Secretary, or imposed by these Bylaws; and shall also perform such other duties as may be assigned from time to time by the Board. The Board may appoint one or more Assistant Secretaries with such powers and duties as the Board, the President or the Secretary shall from time to time determine.
Section 4.5. Other Officers. The Board may appoint, and may authorize the Chairman, the President or any other officer to appoint, any officer as from time to time may appear to the Board, the Chairman, the President or such other officer to be required or desirable to transact the business of the Association. Such officers shall exercise such powers and perform such duties as pertain to their several offices, or as may be conferred upon or assigned to them by these Bylaws, the Board, the Chairman, the President or such other authorized officer. Any person may hold two offices.



Section 4.6. Tenure of Office. The Chairman or the President and all other officers shall hold office until their respective successors are elected and qualified or until their earlier death, resignation, retirement, disqualification or removal from office, subject to the right of the Board or authorized officer to discharge any officer at any time.
ARTICLE V
Stock
Section 5.1. The Board may authorize the issuance of stock either in certificated or in uncertificated form. Certificates for shares of stock shall be in such form as the Board may from time to time prescribe. If the Board issues certificated stock, the certificate shall be signed by the President, Secretary or any other such officer as the Board so determines. Shares of stock shall be transferable on the books of the Association, and a transfer book shall be kept in which all transfers of stock shall be recorded. Every person becoming a shareholder by such transfer shall, in proportion to such person's shares, succeed to all rights of the prior holder of such shares. Each certificate of stock shall recite on its face that the stock represented thereby is transferable only upon the books of the Association properly endorsed. The Board may impose conditions upon the transfer of the stock reasonably calculated to simplify the work of the Association for stock transfers, voting at shareholder meetings, and related matters, and to protect it against fraudulent transfers.
ARTICLE VI
Corporate Seal
Section 6.1. The Association shall have no corporate seal; provided, however, that if the use of a seal is required by, or is otherwise convenient or advisable pursuant to, the laws or regulations of any jurisdiction, the following seal may be used, and the Chairman, the President, the Secretary and any Assistant Secretary shall have the authority to affix such seal:
ARTICLE VII
Miscellaneous Provisions
Section 7.1. Execution of Instruments. All agreements, checks, drafts, orders, indentures, notes, mortgages, deeds, conveyances, transfers, endorsements, assignments, certificates, declarations, receipts, discharges, releases, satisfactions, settlements, petitions, schedules, accounts, affidavits, bonds, undertakings, guarantees, proxies and other instruments or documents may be signed, countersigned, executed, acknowledged, endorsed, verified, delivered or accepted on behalf of the Association, whether in a fiduciary capacity or otherwise, by any officer of the Association, or such employee or agent as may be designated from time to time by the Board by resolution, or by the Chairman or the President by written instrument, which resolution or instrument shall be certified as in effect by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Association. The provisions of this section are supplementary to any other provision of the Articles of Association or Bylaws.
Section 7.2. Records. The Articles of Association, the Bylaws as revised or amended from time to time and the proceedings of all meetings of the shareholders, the Board, and



standing committees of the Board, shall be recorded in appropriate minute books provided for the purpose. The minutes of each meeting shall be signed by the Secretary, or other officer appointed to act as Secretary of the meeting.
Section 7.3. Trust Files. There shall be maintained in the Association files all fiduciary records necessary to assure that its fiduciary responsibilities have been properly undertaken and discharged.
Section 7.4. Trust Investments. Funds held in a fiduciary capacity shall be invested according to the instrument establishing the fiduciary relationship and according to law. Where such instrument does not specify the character and class of investments to be made and does not vest in the Association a discretion in the matter, funds held pursuant to such instrument shall be invested in investments in which corporate fiduciaries may invest under law.
Section 7.5. Notice. Whenever notice is required by the Articles of Association, the Bylaws or law, such notice shall be by mail, postage prepaid, e- mail, in person, or by any other means by which such notice can reasonably be expected to be received, using the address of the person to receive such notice, or such other personal data, as may appear on the records of the Association. Except where specified otherwise in these Bylaws, prior notice shall be proper if given not more than 30 days nor less than 10 days prior to the event for which notice is given.
ARTICLE VIII
Indemnification
Section 8.1. The Association shall indemnify such persons for such liabilities in such manner under such circumstances and to such extent as permitted by Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, as now enacted or hereafter amended. The Board may authorize the purchase and maintenance of insurance and/or the execution of individual agreements for the purpose of such indemnification, and the Association shall advance all reasonable costs and expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred in defending any action, suit or proceeding to all persons entitled to indemnification under this Section 8.1. Such insurance shall be consistent with the requirements of 12 C.F.R. § 7.2014 and shall exclude coverage of liability for a formal order assessing civil money penalties against an institution-affiliated party, as defined at 12 U.S.C. § 1813(u).
Section 8.2. Notwithstanding Section 8.1, however, (a) any indemnification payments to an institution-affiliated party, as defined at 12 U.S.C. § 1813(u), for an administrative proceeding or civil action initiated by a federal banking agency, shall be reasonable and consistent with the requirements of 12 U.S.C. § 1828(k) and the implementing regulations thereunder; and (b) any indemnification payments and advancement of costs and expenses to an institution-affiliated party, as defined at 12 U.S.C. § 1813(u), in cases involving an administrative proceeding or civil action not initiated by a federal banking agency, shall be in accordance with Delaware General Corporation Law and consistent with safe and sound banking practices.



ARTICLE IX
Bylaws: Interpretation and Amendment
Section 9.1. These Bylaws shall be interpreted in accordance with and subject to appropriate provisions of law, and may be added to, altered, amended, or repealed, at any regular or special meeting of the Board.
Section 9.2. A copy of the Bylaws and all amendments shall at all times be kept in a convenient place at the principal office of the Association, and shall be open for inspection to all shareholders during Association hours.
ARTICLE X
Miscellaneous Provisions
Section 10.1. Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the Association shall begin on the first day of January in each year and shall end on the thirty-first day of December following.
Section 10.2. Governing Law. This Association designates the Delaware General Corporation Law, as amended from time to time, as the governing law for its corporate governance procedures, to the extent not inconsistent with Federal banking statutes and regulations or bank safety and soundness.
***
(February 8, 2021)



Exhibit 6
CONSENT
In accordance with Section 321(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, the undersigned, U.S. BANK TRUST COMPANY, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION hereby consents that reports of examination of the undersigned by Federal, State, Territorial or District authorities may be furnished by such authorities to the Securities and Exchange Commission upon its request therefor.
Dated: May 17, 2024
By:/s/ Paul O’Brien
Paul O’Brien
Vice President



Exhibit 7
U.S. Bank Trust Company, National Association
Statement of Financial Condition
as of 3/31/2024
($000’s)
3/31/2024
Assets
Cash and Balances Due From
Depository Institutions
$1,429,213 
Securities4,389 
Federal Funds
Loans & Lease Financing Receivables
Fixed Assets1,270 
Intangible Assets577,915 
Other Assets161,425 
Total Assets$2,174,212 
Liabilities
Deposits$0 
Fed Funds
Treasury Demand Notes
Trading Liabilities
Other Borrowed Money
Acceptances
Subordinated Notes and Debentures
Other Liabilities361,240 
Total Liabilities$361,240 
Equity
Common and Preferred Stock200 
Surplus1,171,635 
Undivided Profits641,137 
Minority Interest in Subsidiaries
Total Equity Capital$1,812,972 
Total Liabilities and Equity Capital$2,174,212 

Exhibit 25.2
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
__________________________
FORM T-1
STATEMENT OF ELIGIBILITY UNDER
THE TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 OF A
CORPORATION DESIGNATED TO ACT AS TRUSTEE
Check if an Application to Determine Eligibility of
a Trustee Pursuant to Section 305(b)(2) o
_______________________________________________________
U.S. BANK TRUST COMPANY, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION
(Exact name of Trustee as specified in its charter)
91-1821036
I.R.S. Employer Identification No.
800 Nicollet Mall
Minneapolis, Minnesota
55402
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Paul O’Brien
U.S. Bank Trust Company, National Association
333 Thornall Street
Edison, NJ 08837
(732) 321-2517
(Name, address and telephone number of agent for service)
Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc.
(Issuer with respect to the Securities)
Maryland (Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc.)
82-4005693
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
902 Carnegie Center Boulevard, Suite 520 Princeton, New Jersey
08540
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)(Zip Code)
Debt Securities
Essential Properties Realty Trust, Inc Debt Securities



FORM T-1
Item 1.    GENERAL INFORMATION. Furnish the following information as to the Trustee.
a)    Name and address of each examining or supervising authority to which it is subject.
Comptroller of the Currency
Washington, D.C.
b)    Whether it is authorized to exercise corporate trust powers.
Yes
Item 2.    AFFILIATIONS WITH THE OBLIGOR. If the obligor is an affiliate of the Trustee, describe each such affiliation.
None
Items 3-15    Items 3-15 are not applicable because to the best of the Trustee's knowledge, the obligor is not in default under any Indenture for which the Trustee acts as Trustee.
Item 16.     LIST OF EXHIBITS: List below all exhibits filed as a part of this statement of eligibility and qualification.
1.    A copy of the Articles of Association of the Trustee, attached as Exhibit 1.
2.    A copy of the certificate of authority of the Trustee to commence business, attached as Exhibit 2.
3.    A copy of the authorization of the Trustee to exercise corporate trust powers, included as Exhibit 2.
4.    A copy of the existing bylaws of the Trustee, attached as Exhibit 4.
5.    A copy of each Indenture referred to in Item 4. Not applicable.
6.    The consent of the Trustee required by Section 321(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, attached as Exhibit 6.
7.    Report of Condition of the Trustee as of March 31, 2024, published pursuant to law or the requirements of its supervising or examining authority, attached as Exhibit 7.



SIGNATURE
Pursuant to the requirements of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, the Trustee, U.S. BANK TRUST COMPANY, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, a national banking association organized and existing under the laws of the United States of America, has duly caused this statement of eligibility and qualification to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, all in the Township of Edison, State of New Jersey on the 17th of May, 2024.
By:/s/ Paul O’Brien
Paul O’Brien
Vice President



Exhibit 1
ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION
OF
U. S. BANK TRUST COMPANY, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION
For the purpose of organizing an association (the “Association”) to perform any lawful activities of national banks, the undersigned enter into the following Articles of Association:
FIRST. The title of this Association shall be U. S. Bank Trust Company, National Association.
SECOND. The main office of the Association shall be in the city of Portland, county of Multnomah, state of Oregon. The business of the Association will be limited to fiduciary powers and the support of activities incidental to the exercise of those powers. The Association may not expand or alter its business beyond that stated in this article without the prior approval of the Comptroller of the Currency.
THIRD. The board of directors of the Association shall consist of not less than five nor more than twenty-five persons, the exact number to be fixed and determined from time to time by resolution of a majority of the full board of directors or by resolution of a majority of the shareholders at any annual or special meeting thereof. Each director shall own common or preferred stock of the Association or of a holding company owning the Association, with an aggregate par, fair market, or equity value of not less than $1,000, as of either (i) the date of purchase, (ii) the date the person became a director, or (iii) the date of that person's most recent election to the board of directors, whichever is more recent. Any combination of common or preferred stock of the Association or holding company may be used.
Any vacancy in the board of directors may be filled by action of a majority of the remaining directors between meetings of shareholders. The board of directors may increase the number of directors up to the maximum permitted by law. Terms of directors, including directors selected to fill vacancies, shall expire at the next regular meeting of shareholders at which directors are elected, unless the directors resign or are removed from office. Despite the expiration of a director's term, the director shall continue to serve until his or her successor is elected and qualified or until there is a decrease in the number of directors and his or her position is eliminated.
Honorary or advisory members of the board of directors, without voting power or power of final decision in matters concerning the business of the Association, may be appointed by resolution of a majority of the full board of directors, or by resolution of shareholders at any annual or special meeting. Honorary or advisory directors shall not be counted to determined the number of directors of the Association or the presence of a quorum in connection with any board action, and shall not be required to own qualifying shares.
FOURTH. There shall be an annual meeting of the shareholders to elect directors and transact whatever other business may be brought before the meeting. It shall be held at the main office or any other convenient place the board of directors may designate, on the day of each year specified therefor in the Bylaws, or if that day falls on a legal holiday in the state in which the
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Association is located, on the next following banking day. If no election is held on the day fixed or in the event of a legal holiday on the following banking day, an election may be held on any subsequent day within 60 days of the day fixed, to be designated by the board of directors, or, if the directors fail to fix the day, by shareholders representing two-thirds of the shares issued and outstanding. In all cases, at least 10 days’ advance notice of the meeting shall be given to the shareholders by first-class mail.
In all elections of directors, the number of votes each common shareholder may cast will be determined by multiplying the number of shares he or she owns by the number of directors to be elected. Those votes may be cumulated and cast for a single candidate or may be distributed among two or more candidates in the manner selected by the shareholder. On all other questions, each common shareholder shall be entitled to one vote for each share of stock held by him or her.
A director may resign at any time by delivering written notice to the board of directors, its chairperson, or to the Association, which resignation shall be effective when the notice is delivered unless the notice specifies a later effective date.
A director may be removed by the shareholders at a meeting called to remove him or her, when notice of the meeting stating that the purpose or one of the purposes is to remove him or her is provided, if there is a failure to fulfill one of the affirmative requirements for qualification, or for cause; provided, however, that a director may not be removed if the number of votes sufficient to elect him or her under cumulative voting is voted against his or her removal.
FIFTH. The authorized amount of capital stock of the Association shall be 1,000,000 shares of common stock of the par value of ten dollars ($10) each; but said capital stock may be increased or decreased from time to time, according to the provisions of the laws of the United States. The Association shall have only one class of capital stock.
No holder of shares of the capital stock of any class of the Association shall have any preemptive or preferential right of subscription to any shares of any class of stock of the Association, whether now or hereafter authorized, or to any obligations convertible into stock of the Association, issued, or sold, nor any right of subscription to any thereof other than such, if any, as the board of directors, in its discretion, may from time to time determine and at such price as the board of directors may from time to time fix.
Transfers of the Association's stock are subject to the prior written approval of a federal depository institution regulatory agency. If no other agency approval is required, the approval of the Comptroller of the Currency must be obtained prior to any such transfers.
Unless otherwise specified in the Articles of Association or required by law, (1) all matters requiring shareholder action, including amendments to the Articles of Association must be approved by shareholders owning a majority voting interest in the outstanding voting stock, and (2) each shareholder shall be entitled to one vote per share.
Unless otherwise specified in the Articles of Association or required by law, all shares of voting stock shall be voted together as a class, on any matters requiring shareholder approval.
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Unless otherwise provided in the Bylaws, the record date for determining shareholders entitled to notice of and to vote at any meeting is the close of business on the day before the first notice is mailed or otherwise sent to the shareholders, provided that in no event may a record date be more than 70 days before the meeting.
The Association, at any time and from time to time, may authorize and issue debt obligations, whether subordinated, without the approval of the shareholders. Obligations classified as debt, whether subordinated, which may be issued by the Association without the approval of shareholders, do not carry voting rights on any issue, including an increase or decrease in the aggregate number of the securities, or the exchange or reclassification of all or part of securities into securities of another class or series.
SIXTH. The board of directors shall appoint one of its members president of this Association and one of its members chairperson of the board and shall have the power to appoint one or more vice presidents, a secretary who shall keep minutes of the directors' and shareholders' meetings and be responsible for authenticating the records of the Association, and such other officers and employees as may be required to transact the business of this Association. A duly appointed officer may appoint one or more officers or assistant officers if authorized by the board of directors in accordance with the Bylaws.
The board of directors shall have the power to:
(1)    Define the duties of the officers, employees, and agents of the Association.
(2)    Delegate the performance of its duties, but not the responsibility for its duties, to the officers, employees, and agents of the Association.
(3)    Fix the compensation and enter employment contracts with its officers and employees upon reasonable terms and conditions consistent with applicable law.
(4)    Dismiss officers and employees.
(5)    Require bonds from officers and employees and to fix the penalty thereof.
(6)    Ratify written policies authorized by the Association's management or committees of the board.
(7)    Regulate the manner any increase or decrease of the capital of the Association shall be made; provided that nothing herein shall restrict the power of shareholders to increase or decrease the capital of the Association in accordance with law, and nothing shall raise or lower from two-thirds the percentage required for shareholder approval to increase or reduce the capital.
(8)    Manage and administer the business and affairs of the Association.
(9)    Adopt initial Bylaws, not inconsistent with law or the Articles of Association, for managing the business and regulating the affairs of the Association.
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(10)    Amend or repeal Bylaws, except to the extent that the Articles of Association reserve this power in whole or in part to the shareholders.
(11)    Make contracts.
(12)    Generally perform all acts that are legal for a board of directors to perform.
SEVENTH. The board of directors shall have the power to change the location of the main office to any authorized branch within the limits of the city of Portland, Oregon, without the approval of the shareholders, or with a vote of shareholders owning two-thirds of the stock of the Association for a location outside such limits and upon receipt of a certificate of approval from the Comptroller of the Currency, to any other location within or outside the limits of the city of Portland, Oregon, but not more than thirty miles beyond such limits. The board of directors shall have the power to establish or change the location of any office or offices of the Association to any other location permitted under applicable law, without approval of shareholders, subject to approval by the Comptroller of the Currency.
EIGHTH. The corporate existence of this Association shall continue until termination according to the laws of the United States.
NINTH. The board of directors of the Association, or any shareholder owning, in the aggregate, not less than 25 percent of the stock of the Association, may call a special meeting of shareholders at any time. Unless otherwise provided by the Bylaws or the laws of the United States, or waived by shareholders, a notice of the time, place, and purpose of every annual and special meeting of the shareholders shall be given by first-class mail, postage prepaid, mailed at least 10, and no more than 60, days prior to the date of the meeting to each shareholder of record at his/her address as shown upon the books of the Association. Unless otherwise provided by the Bylaws, any action requiring approval of shareholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting.
TENTH. These Articles of Association may be amended at any regular or special meeting of the shareholders by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the stock of the Association, unless the vote of the holders of a greater amount of stock is required by law, and in that case by the vote of the holders of such greater amount; provided, that the scope of the Association's activities and services may not be expanded without the prior written approval of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Association's board of directors may propose one or more amendments to the Articles of Association for submission to the shareholders.
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In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands this 11th of June, 1997.
/s/ Jeffrey T. Grubb
Jeffrey T. Grubb
/s/ Robert D. Sznewajs
Robert D. Sznewajs
/s/ Dwight V. Board
Dwight V. Board
/s/ P. K. Chatterjee
P. K. Chatterjee
/s/ Robert Lane
Robert Lane



Exhibit 2
exhibit2.jpg
Office of the Comptroller of the Currency
Washington, DC 20219
CERTIFICATE OF CORPORATE EXISTENCE AND FIDUCIARY POWERS
I, Michael J. Hsu, Acting Comptroller of the Currency, do hereby certify that:
1. The Comptroller of the Currency, pursuant to Revised Statutes 324, et seq, as amended, and 12 USC 1, et seq, as amended, has possession, custody, and control of all records pertaining to the chartering, regulation, and supervision of all national banking associations.
2. "U.S. Bank Trust National Association," Wilmington, Delaware (Charter No. 24090), is a national banking association formed under the laws of the United States and is authorized thereunder to transact the business of banking and exercise fiduciary powers on the date of this certificate.
IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF, today, February 20, 2024, I have hereunto subscribed my name and caused my seal of office to be affixed to these presents at the U.S. Department of the Treasury, in the City of Washington, District of Columbia.
/s/ Michael J. Hsu
Acting Comptroller of the Currency
exhibit2seal.jpg
2024-00560-C



Exhibit 4
U.S. BANK TRUST COMPANY, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION
AMENDED AND RESTATED BYLAWS
ARTICLE I
Meetings of Shareholders
Section 1.1. Annual Meeting. The annual meeting of the shareholders, for the election of d